Actinidia in the Urals: suitable varieties and recommendations for growing

Actinidia in the Urals: suitable varieties and recommendations for growing

Actinidia is a two-in-one plant. She very successfully combines showiness and visual appeal with the presence of tasty and healthy fruits. This vine is not yet the most common culture in the areas of Russian gardeners, but it is confidently gaining popularity due to its unusual appearance, general unpretentiousness in care and the ability to adapt to not always favorable climatic conditions, which are very different from its native subtropics.

What is actinidia

Actinidia is a very unusual vine that can become a real decoration of a personal plot. It is also known to gardeners under the nicknames of northern grapes, kiwi, Amur gooseberry, Far Eastern raisins. This plant is not only spectacular and decorative, but also very useful. It regularly produces berries that contain many vitamins, macro- and microelements vital for the body.

Actinidia in the garden looks very impressive

Actinidia is widely used in the garden. This vine has a powerful tree-like trunk, the shoots are literally dotted with large, beautifully shaped leaves. The gazebos and verandas entwined with it look very impressive. You can also disguise some unsightly structure or create a hedge. Even in winter, actinidia attracts attention - its whimsically intertwining shoots resemble the creation of a talented graphic artist.

Video: what kind of plant is actinidia

Spread

In nature, there are many varieties of actinidia. Most of them are native to the Asian subtropics. But there is also actinidia kolomikta, which is widespread in nature in northern China. It successfully survives not only in the European part of Russia, but also in regions with a more severe climate, rightly ranked among the zones of risky agriculture - in Siberia, the Far East, and the Urals. Liana is frost-resistant, temperatures up to -45 ° C do not harm it. The main danger for her is recurrent spring frosts, which are not something out of the ordinary in these territories. When the temperature drops to -2 ° C, the leaves will suffer, but quickly recover, at -4 ° C both they and the flowers will turn black and fall off, -8 ° C is a critical minimum at which the shoots may not survive.

The plant has long been successfully used in folk medicine. All its parts are used - leaves, roots, bark, flowers. Cooked decoctions and infusions serve as an effective prevention of atherosclerosis, help fight other vascular diseases, and are used in the presence of problems with digestion and breathing. It is also an irreplaceable remedy for the treatment of vitamin deficiency.

In general, actinidia is one of the most ancient plants that have survived to this day. Botanists claim that this vine existed on the planet at the same time as the dinosaurs, but, unlike them, was able to survive the ice age. Accordingly, she has the ability to adapt to the most extreme conditions.

Description and characteristics

Actinidia belongs to the category of dioecious plants. If you plant it not only for decoration, but also counting on fruiting, there must be a male bush that will serve as a pollinator. Breeders have bred several new varieties, positioned as self-fertile, but practice shows that they cannot rightfully be called such. Distinguish male plants from female plants by flowers. In the former, they have many stamens, but lack the pistil.

Flowers on male actinidia bushes lack pistil

For the winter, the vine sheds its leaves. But before that, they acquire a very bright shade - sunny yellow, crimson-crimson, blood-scarlet. In shape, the leaf plate resembles a slightly elongated heart. In most varieties, it is dark green, but there are also varieties with a leaf tip colored white, pinkish or cream.

Bright multi-colored leaves only add decorativeness to actinidia

The flowering period is short (2–2.5 weeks), but it is very abundant. The snow-white or pastel pink flowers are small, but the open buds spread an amazing aroma, similar to the smell of orange blossom or lily of the valley.

Blooming actinidia spreads an amazing scent

Actinidia fruits look like very large gooseberries or small kiwi fruits. Their taste is very pleasant, sweet and sour, refreshing. The pulp contains more vitamin C than lemons and black currants. Its daily rate is only two fruits. It is best to eat fresh berries, so experienced gardeners recommend letting them hang on the vine until the first frost - then the shelf life will increase significantly.

Actinidia fruits are very similar in shape to kiwi

Rodents, primarily mice, are not interested in the shoots of actinidia. They can only build a nest in the space between the roots. But on cats, the plant has about the same intoxicating effect as valerian tincture. They do not eat the leaves, but to get to the juice, they gnaw through the bases of the shoots and roots.

Video: actinidia and a cat

Actinidia is distinguished by its rapid growth and early maturity. In a year, the shoots lengthen by an average of 1.5–2 m. The first fruits can be tasted 3-4 years after the seedling is planted in the ground. Average yield is 5-10 kg of berries from an adult plant.

Video: characteristics of actinidia

Varieties suitable for the Ural climate

Actinidia kolomikta is best suited for growing in the Urals. It possesses the necessary frost resistance, tolerates any whims and sudden changes in the weather well. Modern breeding offers a wide variety of varieties bred in Russia and abroad.

Dr. Shimanovsky

One of the most popular varieties of Polish selection. The average length of the shoots is about 2 m. It has good cold resistance (up to -40 ° C). The creators position the variety as self-fertile, but practice shows that this is not entirely true. Shoots are glossy, shiny, chocolate brown. The leaves are variegated, bright green with snow-white, cream, pinkish blurry spots. In autumn, they change color to yellow, crimson, lilac-scarlet. The intensity of the color depends on the place of planting of the vine - the more sun, the brighter it is. The diversity appears after two to three years in the open field.

Flowering can be expected from plants over five years old. The flowers are small, snow-white, with pale yellow stamens, spreading a pleasant lemon scent. Duration of flowering - up to three weeks. Fruit ripening period is 4–4.5 months. Usually the harvest is taken in early August. The berries are small, weighing about 2.5–3 g and 2–2.5 cm long. The skin is salad green, the pulp is juicy, pleasant to the taste, sweet and sour. The aroma is reminiscent of pineapple or apple. Ripe fruits quickly crumble. Average yield is 12-15 kg per adult plant.

Actinidia Doctor Shimanovsky is one of the most popular foreign varieties in Russia.

Queen of the garden

A variety of Russian selection, included in the national State Register in 1999. Belongs to the category of dessert. Spectacular climbing liana, the length of the shoots of which reaches 7-9 m. Winter hardiness within -35 ° C. The yield is not too high - 1-2 kg per adult plant. It rarely suffers from diseases and pests. Leaves are shiny, lime color. The fruits are very high in vitamin C (1700 mg per 100 g of berries). The harvest ripens in the first decade of August. The berries have a regular cylindrical or barrel-shaped shape with a cut off top, reach a weight of 3.5–4.5 g and a length of about 3.5 cm. The skin is greenish-olive, with a gray undertone. A pinkish-red blush may appear on the side facing the sun. The taste is refreshing, sweet and sour, the aroma is intense, similar to the smell of apples. Taste is rated very highly by professionals - 4.8 points out of five.

The fruits of the actinidia Queen of the garden are very tasty, but, unfortunately, they are few

Waffle

Achievement of Moscow breeders. The variety has an average ripening period and is considered one of the best by experts. Withstands frosts down to -30 ° C. Undoubted advantages are excellent resistance to diseases and pests, consistently high yield (up to 7–8 kg per adult liana) and large size of berries (more than 8 g). The fruit is elliptical with a flat, as if cut off base. The skin is matte, greenish brown. From a distance, it can seem dirty. The taste is slightly sour, the pulp is very delicate, the aroma is banana. Tasters estimate it at 4.75 points out of five. Ripe berries quickly crumble. Therefore, it is better to remove unripe fruits - they ripen within 2-3 days. The length of the shoots is 6–8 m, the thickness is 3–4 cm. In old plants, it reaches 8–10 cm. The maximum yield is achieved when growing vines in light partial shade. The flowers are single, with snow-white petals.

Actinidia Waffle is one of the best achievements of Russian breeders

People's

Actinidia of medium ripening. Shoots grow more slowly than most vines. Fruits are small, weighing up to 4–4.5 g, in the form of an almost regular ellipse. The taste is sweet and sour, the pulp has a rich apple aroma (to some it is more reminiscent of strawberries). Lime peel. Tasting score - 4.5 points. Curly shoots, smooth, brownish in color. The leaves on the front side are bright green, in the sun they can acquire a yellowish tint. The inside is almost white. The edge is cut with small teeth. It rarely suffers from diseases, but, in comparison with other actinidia, it enjoys increased attention of pests.

Unlike most actinidia, People's growth rate does not differ

Hope

Belarusian variety of medium ripening. Recommended for cultivation in all regions of Russia. Its main advantages include good yield (4–5 kg per adult liana), high (1250 mg per 100 g) content of vitamin C, as well as the fact that it does not suffer from diseases and pests. A significant drawback is drought sensitivity. The length of the shoots is 5.5–6 m. The vine brings the first harvest 4–5 years after planting in the ground. Differs in the large size of the flowers, reaching 2.8-3 cm in diameter. The leaves are strongly elongated, wedge-shaped, with a sharply pointed tip. The average berry weight is 3 g or slightly less. It gradually tapers towards the top. Even fully ripe fruits do not crumble. The bright green skin is covered with longitudinal salad-colored stripes. The pulp is very sweet, the sourness is barely noticeable. Tasting score - 4.5 points.

Actinidia Hope is very sensitive to substrate moisture

Magpie

One of the earliest varieties, the fruits ripen in the first decade of August. Diseases are rarely affected. Curly shoots, about 3 m long. Leaves are soft, with an unusual dark olive shade. Fruits are elongated, elliptical, slightly flattened from the sides, rather small (weight 2.2–2.5 g, length 2.5–2.8 cm). The skin is thin, lime, smooth, shiny. The pulp is very sweet, with an apple aroma and a high (2200 mg per 100 g) content of vitamin C. The taste has earned the highest possible rating from professional tasters - 5 points. The yield, unfortunately, is low - 1–1.5 kg per bush.

The fruits of actinidia magpie in the Urals ripen before anyone else

Grape

It is considered one of the most promising novelties in breeding, but along with excellent winter hardiness and good immunity against diseases, there is also a significant drawback - low yield (no more than 1 kg per bush). The fruits ripen at the very beginning of August. The variety belongs to the category of dessert. The fruits are large, weighing 6–7 g and 2.2–2.5 cm long, strongly elongated, slightly ribbed. The pulp is slightly sour, has a pronounced strawberry aroma, which some people think is similar to marmalade. The skin is dark olive green, very thin, almost transparent. Longitudinal light stripes and a slight blurred blush on it fit into the norm.

Actinidia of the Grape variety has very tasty fruits, but it does not differ in yield

Backyard

The variety is early ripening, the fruits ripen in the first decade of August. The average weight of the berry is 4.5–5 g, the length is 3.5–4 cm. The skin is colored in various shades of olive. The shape is an elongated cylinder with well-felt ribs. The taste is rather sour than sweet, but it is highly rated by tasters, at 4.7 points. A pulp with a rich aroma, reminiscent of both pineapples and apples. Shoots reach a length of 3-4 cm, curl vigorously. Even in adult vines, the bark retains a green hue. Plants rarely suffer from frost. Productivity - up to 2 kg per bush.

Actinidia Priusadebnaya tastes not very sweet, but professional tasters like

Gourmet

The fruits ripen in the second decade of August. The growth rate of the liana does not differ. Interestingly, it wraps around the support strictly counterclockwise. The shoots are very thin, but the leaves are large, with prominent veins. The flowers are solitary, in appearance they resemble lilies of the valley. Flowering lasts almost a month. Frost resistance - within -40 ° C. Fruits in the form of a slightly flattened cylinder. The skin is very thin, olive green in color, may be covered with blurred longitudinal stripes. The berries are large enough - 4.5–5.5 g. The taste is balanced, sweet and sour. The pulp subtly smells like pineapple. The average yield is 5–7 kg with an adult liana.

Actinidia Gourmand has a high yield and good frost resistance.

Moma

A late ripening variety that belongs to the category of dessert. Differs in frost resistance, rarely suffers from diseases and pests. Young shoots change color from greenish to chocolate brown during the season. The leaves are smooth on the outside, on the inside along the veins there is an edge. Fruits in the shape of a rounded cone. Average length - a little over 2 cm, weight - 2.5-3 g. The pulp is very sweet, with a rich pineapple aroma. Ripe berries do not crumble. The skin is brownish-green with darker longitudinal stripes, thin. The taste is rated at 4.5 points. Low yield - 0.5-1 kg per adult plant.

Actinidia Moma is practically not attacked by diseases and pests

Adam

Male plant, does not bear fruit in principle. Can be used as a universal pollinator for any of the described species of actinidia. The average height of the vine is 3.5–4 m. The leaves are very decorative - when the plant reaches the age of 3–5 years during the season, they gradually change from a bright green spring color to an almost white summer color, which becomes crimson-pink by the beginning of autumn. The older the liana, the more intense the tone of the leaf plate. The flowers are small, white, collected in an inflorescence of three. The aroma is almost imperceptible, similar to the smell of lemon.

Adam is a suitable pollinator for any female species of actinidia colomicta

In general, bright coloration is a distinctive feature of male actinidia plants. Their leaves are much larger and brighter than those of women. Flowering occurs in late spring or early summer.

Video: how to distinguish a male actinidia bush from a female

How to plant a plant correctly

Actinidia is a long-lived plant. She will decorate the garden for at least half a century. At the same time, the liana does not like transplants too much, therefore, the planting procedure must be approached very responsibly.

Seat selection

When choosing a site for actinidia, first of all, it is worth considering the life of the plant. It is quite long, so the liana grows strongly in height and width.It is advisable to first familiarize yourself with the description of a particular variety and be guided by the declared dimensions of an adult plant.

Actinidia does not make any special demands on the quality of the soil, although it grows best on light soils rich in humus and nutrients. The acid-base balance of the substrate is neutral or slightly acidic. Alkaline will definitely not work. But you can acidify it with sawdust of coniferous trees, citric or acetic acid, peat.

When planting several actinidia at the same time, you need to provide each plant with sufficient area for nutrition.

Since the homeland of actinidia is subtropical forests, it loves moisture. But at the same time it does not tolerate when the water stagnates at the roots. Groundwater should not come closer than a meter to the surface. If this is not the case, you will have to pour drainage material on the bottom of the planting pit or build a hill at least half a meter high.

All this is quite feasible in the Urals. The hardest part is to provide enough sunlight and warmth. Actinidia kolomikta is shade-tolerant, but not shade-loving. A lack of light negatively affects the quantity and taste of the fruit. A vine planted under a tree in an openwork shade looks very interesting. She can use his trunk as a natural support. But the tree should not be fruitful, otherwise its yield will sharply decrease. Perhaps the vine will even strangle him.

Actinidia will tolerate a slight partial shade, for young vines it is even good

Good neighbors for actinidia are any legumes. They saturate the soil with nitrogen and loosen it, improving the air permeability of the soil. At the same time, they form a continuous carpet, preventing the substrate from drying out. Currants, hazel are also suitable - both as neighbors and as previous crops. Actinidia looks spectacular surrounded by bright flowers - petunias, asters, viola, gerberas, marigolds. They are not competitors for her in the fight for nutrients contained in the soil. The most unsuccessful companion for actinidia is the apple tree.

Preparing for landing

The climate in the Urals is such that the only possible time for planting actinidia is spring. Autumn planting is the best option for regions located closer to the subtropics. Winter in the Urals does not always come in accordance with the calendar, and a plant, in order to adapt to new living conditions and safely survive the cold, needs at least two months before the onset of frost. The liana planted at the end of May is guaranteed to get strong enough before winter. At this time, the probability of recurrent spring frosts and sudden temperature fluctuations is significantly lower than in April, and the soil has time to warm up. Actinidia is planted before the leaf buds wake up in the vine.

How to choose a seedling

The choice of a seedling is a very responsible procedure. Novice gardeners are advised to purchase plants exclusively from specialized stores or nurseries. This is the only way to ensure that this is the desired type of actinidia. Buying handheld or at agricultural fairs is a big risk. At the same time, it is desirable that the nursery where the plant was grown would also be located in the Urals. Such seedlings are already adapted to the climatic characteristics of the region.

Buying from trusted suppliers is a guarantee of the quality of the planting material

What else should you be guided by when choosing:

  1. The roots of actinidia are quite fragile, so it is better to give preference to a plant with a closed root system. This will ensure that they are not damaged in transit or dry out before landing. Five to ten minutes in the open air is enough for the roots to be irreversibly damaged.
  2. Annual plants take root well in a new place. In addition, they very rarely have an earthen lump overdried. A large seedling (three years old or older) is by no means the best choice.
  3. If actinidia is bought with the expectation of a future harvest, a pollinator is required. For every three female bushes, one male of the same species is acquired (sometimes a ratio of 5: 2 is recommended). Interspecific pollination is impossible for this plant.
  4. Saplings grown from seeds do not always inherit the varietal characteristics of the parent. This is only relevant for actinidia obtained from cuttings. They can be distinguished by the presence of a stump-like trunk and lateral buds from which thin shoots grow. The annual seed plant is the only smooth shoot.
  5. In actinidia kolomikt, unlike other varieties, the shoot is painted in a rather dark color - green-brown, red-brown, chocolate. Small rounded growths of a lighter shade are clearly visible. In the rest of the actinidia, the shoots are much paler - sandy, beige, salad color.

Planting pit preparation

A planting pit for actinidia is prepared in the fall or at least a few weeks before the scheduled date. Several bushes are best placed in a row from north to south. At least one and a half meters are left between neighboring vines, and at least 3.5-4 m between their rows. The optimum depth of the pit is about half a meter, the diameter is 50-60 cm.

Brick chips, expanded clay, pebbles, and ceramic shards must be poured onto the bottom of the pit with a layer of at least 10 cm thick. Other material can be used as drainage.

At the bottom of the planting pit for actinidia, a drainage layer is required

The top layer of soil extracted from the pit is mixed with humus (10–12 l), simple superphosphate (180–200 g), potassium sulfate (70–90 g) and urea (40–50 g). With the finished mixture, you need to fill about a third of the volume of the hole, forming a mound.

When planting actinidia, it is necessary to provide a place for placing the trellis. It is desirable that it be collapsible. In this case, the shoots can be removed from it and covered for the winter. In the Urals, it may well be extremely cold and with little snow, so it is better to insure yourself. If it is planned that it will climb a wall or fence, the seedlings are placed about a meter away from them. Lianas are devoid of aerial roots, therefore they are absolutely safe for any buildings. The height of the support should be such that it is convenient for the plant to care for and harvest. Enough 3-3.5 m.

Actinidia on a trellis looks much more aesthetically pleasing than shoots intertwined in a ball, moreover, it is much easier to care for it

Landing procedure

The process of planting actinidia in the ground takes place in several steps.

  1. The pot with the plant is immersed in a container of water of a suitable volume for about half an hour. You can add potassium permanganate to it to a pale pink color (for disinfection) or any biostimulant (to strengthen the plant's immunity).
  2. The soil in the planting pit is well watered.
  3. A deepening is made, filling its bottom with a layer of pure nutritious soil, without fertilizers. This will help keep the fragile roots from getting burned.
  4. Actinidia is removed from the pot, trying to cause as little damage to the earthen coma as possible. It is placed in a recess made at the top of a mound in a hole and soil is added in small portions, periodically gently tamping it. Be sure to take care not to deepen the root collar.

    Actinidia is planted, trying to disturb the roots as little as possible.

  5. The planted plant is watered abundantly, consuming at least 25-30 liters of water. It is not necessary to dig holes for irrigation so that rain and melt water does not accumulate in them.
  6. When the moisture is absorbed, a trunk circle with a diameter of 50–70 cm is mulched with freshly cut grass, peat crumbs, humus (layer 10–12 cm thick). If there are cats in your or neighboring areas, it is advisable to surround the plant with a metal mesh or build another barrier. These animals can gnaw heavily on shoots and roots.

    After planting, it is advisable to surround young actinidia plants with a fine-mesh metal mesh, protecting from cats

  7. For the summer, a white covering material or gauze folded in several layers is pulled over the vine. This will help her to successfully cope with the transferred stress and protect the soil from drying out. Immature plants do not tolerate direct sunlight.

Video: how to plant actinidia correctly

Crop care recommendations

Actinidia kolomikta is deservedly considered an unpretentious plant to care for. It has a certain flexibility, successfully adapting to climatic and weather conditions. Therefore, its cultivation in the Urals is practically no different from cultivation in other areas.

Watering

Too abundant and / or frequent watering will turn the soil in the near-trunk circle into a swamp, and this actinidia does not tolerate at all. If the summer is cool, the plant can get by with natural precipitation. In the heat, the procedure is carried out every 6–9 days, spending 50–70 liters of water per adult liana. If there is no rain for a long time, it is advisable to additionally spray the leaves early in the morning or late at night.

To retain moisture in the soil, the trunk circle must be mulched. It will also help save time on weeding. Each time after watering, the soil is loosened, but very carefully - the root system of actinidia is superficial, the roots do not lie deeper than 10-15 cm.

Mulch helps to retain moisture in the soil and save time on weeding

Fertilization

Actinidia responds very positively to the application of fertilizers, mineral or organic. At the beginning of the active growing season, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are needed to build up the green mass. In the process of loosening, 15–20 g of carbamide, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, or 20–25 l of humus, rotted compost are distributed over the area of ​​the trunk circle in the process of loosening.

Urea, like other nitrogen-containing fertilizers, stimulates the vine to build up green mass

The second top dressing is natural fertilizer. Wood ash is a natural source of phosphorus and potassium. With her infusion (a three-liter jar for 10 liters of boiling water), the liana is watered at the beginning of summer. If the state of actinidia or the growth rate does not suit you, during the season it can be sprayed 3-4 times with a solution of any universal complex mineral fertilizer (Kemira-Lux, Agricola, Zdraven or others will do).

In early autumn, actinidia is watered with a solution of potassium sulfate (10-15 g) and superphosphate (30-35 g) in 10 liters of water. If autumn is rainy, you can distribute the top dressing around the trunk circle in a dry form. An alternative is a complex fertilizer containing phosphorus and potassium (ABA, Autumn). Nitrogen cannot be added at this time - it prevents the plant from properly preparing for winter.

Actinidium categorically does not tolerate chlorine and lime. Therefore, in order to neutralize the excessive acidity of the soil, dolomite flour, crushed chalk, powdered eggshells are used. And potassium chloride as a fertilizer is completely excluded.

Pruning and shaping the crown

Since one of the main functions of actinidia is decorative, crown formation for it is a strictly mandatory procedure. Such a vine looks well-groomed, grows more luxuriantly, forms new lateral shoots faster.

Correct pruning promotes crown growth

The rules and timing for pruning are as follows:

  1. If the condition of the plant is satisfactory, during the first season, shoots were added in a length of about a meter, pruning can be carried out already in the second year of being in the open field. Otherwise, the procedure is postponed for another season. The right time for her is immediately after flowering or already in the fall, when the leaves fall (no later than a month before the onset of the first frost). In spring, pruning is not recommended due to intensive sap flow.
  2. For the first time, remove all shoots to the point of growth, leaving 3-4 of the strongest and most developed. They are tied to a trellis, giving a strictly vertical position. During the summer, the vine actively forms side shoots. Five or six of them are also fixed on a support, but already horizontally. The resulting configuration should look like a fan. Further, these shoots will need to be pinched every autumn, removing 2-3 upper leaf buds.
  3. In the third or fourth year of life, shoots are formed, from which they will then be harvested. They are made significantly shorter, cutting by about half. Place them, as described above, alternately vertically and horizontally.

    Regular pruning gives the actinidia a presentable look

  4. Don't forget about sanitary pruning. Every year in the spring and autumn, they remove all the frozen, dried out, affected by diseases and pests of the lash. Also, the vine is gradually rejuvenated, getting rid of shoots older than 12-15 years.

Video: pruning actinidia

Preparing for winter

Actinidia varieties suitable for cultivation in the Urals are distinguished by high frost resistance. But still it is better to play it safe and cover the plant.

  1. Pre-clean the trunk circle from the existing plant debris.
  2. After that, the mulch layer is renewed, bringing its thickness at the base of the trunk to 20–25 cm.
  3. Shoots of actinidia are carefully detached from the trellis and laid out on the ground, sprinkled with fallen leaves, hay, wood shavings, spruce branches and tightened with breathable covering material in several layers.
  4. As soon as enough snow falls, the resulting structure is thrown over them, building a snowdrift. During the winter, it is refurbished 2-3 times, at the same time breaking the hard crust formed on the surface.

Common diseases and pests

The fact that actinidia is extremely rare, and with proper care, almost never suffers from pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, cannot but rejoice gardeners. Pests also do not have much love for this plant.

But there are exceptions to the general rule:

  1. Phylostictosis. A fungal disease that is easily recognized by dark brown spots with a burgundy edging on the leaves. Gradually, the tissues in these places dry up, holes appear. Most often old actinidia or plants with damaged roots suffer from phylostictosis.

    Old creepers of actinidia mainly suffer from phyllostictosis.

  2. Ramulariasis. The leaf plate on both sides is covered with whitish spots with a wide dark border.

    Ramulariasis is a dangerous fungal disease, from which actinidia can suffer with improper care

Having found the first warning signs, it is necessary to take measures to treat and prevent recurrence of the disease:

  • diseased leaves must be removed and burned;
  • spray the plant several times with an interval of 7–12 days with a 2% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid.

These are the most common remedies, but other, more modern fungicides can also be used - Abiga-Peak, Skor, Topaz, Horus, and so on.

Of the pests, caterpillars, leaf beetles, and lacewing are paying attention to actinidia. They can cause serious harm to the plant, eating away leaf and flower buds from the inside. In order to cope with them, the vine is sprayed 2-3 times with a solution of any general action insecticide prepared according to the instructions - Inta-Vir, Mospilan, Iskra-Bio, Tanrek and others.

The leaf beetle is a very cute bug, but it causes significant harm to actinidia

Harvesting and storage

Actinidia bears the first fruits 3-4 years after planting in open ground. For most varieties, fruiting begins in August and lasts at least 1.5 months. Unripe berries during storage can ripen, becoming sweeter.

Actinidia berries ripen gradually, the harvest is harvested within 4-6 weeks

Fresh actinidia fruits are stored in a cool (10–12 ° C) room with good ventilation and humidity of 60–75%. Make sure that there are no strong-smelling foods or substances nearby. Berries easily absorb odors.

During the heat treatment process, the benefits of actinidia are not lost.Therefore, it is quite possible to cook jam, compote from it, and make other homemade preparations. Frozen, dried and sun-dried berries are stored for the longest time.

Heat treatment does not in any way reduce the benefits of actinidia fruits

Gardeners reviews

It is quite possible to grow actinidia (especially its variety of kolomikta) in the Urals, despite the fact that this region deservedly belongs to the category of risky farming zones. Among the many varieties of Russian and foreign selection, each gardener will find one that suits him. The main advantages of this culture are decorativeness, cold resistance, good yield and general unpretentiousness. It is they who contribute to the fact that actinidia is gaining more and more distribution in Russia.

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Trees for the garden

Apple trees

The apple tree is perhaps one of the most common fruit crops in the Urals.

Even in the harsh climatic conditions of the Urals, it has the following positive qualities:

  • Durability
  • Good yield
  • A large selection of varieties with different ripening periods
  • Frost resistance up to -45 degrees Celsius.

The process of planting, growing and caring for apple trees in the Urals does not differ from other regions. However, due to the difficult climatic conditions, the choice of apple varieties, as well as any other plants for growing in the country, must be approached very responsibly.

So, the most common in this region are the following types of apple trees:

  • Silver Hoof is a very popular variety due to its good frost resistance and yield. Moreover, from the moment of planting to harvesting, no more than three years pass.
    Fruits are medium in size, have a sweet and sour pleasant taste. Harvesting in this area is carried out in the last decade of August.
  • Blush Sverdlovsk - trees of medium height, also have good frost resistance and productivity. The fruits are juicy, medium in size, and have good taste. The crop is harvested in early autumn.

In the photo - Sverdlovsk blush

  • Pervouralskaya apple-tree is a young late variety that has excellent winter hardiness. The fruits are harvested in the last decade of September, however, they continue to ripen until December. The harvested fruits can lie until spring.
  • Ural pink apple - the plant gives a good harvest and is adapted to harsh weather conditions. Harvesting takes place in mid-August.

Advice!
So that the branches of the apple tree do not break off under the weight of the harvest, support should be placed under them.

In the first years after planting the plants, despite their frost resistance, humus should be added to the trunk circle to insulate the root system. Otherwise, as mentioned above, cultivation is carried out according to the standard scheme.

Pears

Along with apples in the Urals, you can successfully grow pears with your own hands.

The best varieties in this region are:

    Sverdlovchanka - this variety is popular not only in the Urals, but also in many other regions of Russia.
    This is due to a number of its advantages, such as:

  • good yield
  • frost resistance
  • sweet fruits with rich taste
  • the variety is practically unaffected by diseases
  • low price of seedlings.

This tree bears fruit in the middle of summer. Fruit can be stored for one and a half months.

  • The early ripening Sverdlovskaya is a vigorous, fast-growing plant. Fruits are below medium in size with a strong aroma. Harmonious sweet-sour-honey-sweet taste. It should be noted that Sverdlovskaya Skorospelka is the earliest variety.

  • Sentyabrina (Dobryanka) is a medium-sized plant with a slender pyramidal crown. Fruits are medium to large in size and beautiful lemon-pear-shaped, brownish-red in color, juicy pulp has an excellent sour-sweet taste.

It is better to plant pears of all the above varieties in higher areas, moreover, this should be the eastern slope. This arrangement allows you to protect plants from westerly winds. Otherwise, planting and leaving are no different from other regions.

Apricots

As mentioned above, it has recently become possible to grow even apricots in the Urals. For these purposes, a Siberian variety is suitable, which is able to withstand temperatures up to -40 degrees Celsius and even lower. True, in order to grow a plant, certain rules must be followed.

So, the instructions for growing this crop are as follows:

  • Landing should be carried out on a hill, protected from water and cold winds.
  • It is better to grow an apricot from a stone, as the seedlings are more adapted to the local climate. In the case of planting seedlings, the work should be done in early October.
  • Pruning of branches can only be carried out after the first fruits appear, otherwise fruiting will be delayed.

I must say that it is not always possible to plant an apricot on a hill. In this case, a tube about 30 cm long and 50 mm in diameter should be put on a one-year-old seedling. You can remove it only after 3-4 years.

Vegetable garden and flower beds

Strawberry

The most common plant in the Ural gardens is strawberry. It is distinguished from other berry crops by a quick entry into the season of fruiting (you can get a good harvest in the second year after planting) and earlier ripening of berries.

Below are the best varieties of garden strawberries for the Urals:

  • Brighton - the plant is a powerful and low-leafed bushes. The berries are large enough and have a beautiful varnished surface. Distinctive features are winter hardiness and resistance to various diseases and pests.

  • Elizabeth II is one of the most popular varieties of remontant strawberries. Its feature is continuous fruiting, which begins in spring and ends with the onset of frost. Large berries - from 50 to 100 g.
  • Irishka F1 is a mustless plant with a large number of peduncles. The berries are very aromatic, dark red, medium in size. This variety can withstand severe frosts, heat and even excessive waterlogging.
  • Lyubava is a red berry, with a dessert taste, with a dense pulp. The variety is distinguished by its exceptional frost resistance.

All of the above varieties of garden strawberries for the Urals are best planted in May, which allows the plants to take root well over the summer. For planting, it is advisable to take seedlings that have at least three leaves.

Note!
If the seedlings have too long roots, they must be shortened so that they do not bend during planting.

Onion and garlic

Beautiful beds with green onions can decorate the garden.

Growing this crop is not difficult - you can use shallots or multi-primordial plant varieties for this.

  • Landing is carried out in the first half of October using a half-bridge method.
  • After planting, the onion beds should be covered with a 10 cm layer of humus.
  • I must say that winter garlic can be grown in the same way.

Vegetables

Recently, a variety of vegetables, even melons and gourds, have been grown in the Urals. However, greenhouses are usually used for this. In the open field, you can grow some early ripening varieties of cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers.

Seedlings must be planted in warm soil so that the roots do not suffer, so planting should be done in early June. You can learn more about growing vegetables from the video in this article.

Flowers

Flowers in the garden in the Urals, as in any other region, are the main decoration of the site. However, the choice of these plants must be approached as carefully as the choice of fruit and berry crops.

Below are several types of flowers that can be grown in the Ural climate:

  • Roses - almost every gardener tries to decorate his garden with the “queen of flowers”. It should be said right away that it is quite difficult to grow roses in a garden in the Urals, since the roots of this plant freeze out. Therefore, there are two options for growing them - digging bushes for the winter or grafting on a winter-hardy stock (in this case, the plants will have to be covered for the winter).
  • Siberian snowdrops are incredibly decorative and unpretentious flowers for summer cottages. Moreover, they sprout literally from under the snow, so they are the very first to decorate the garden plot.

  • Anemone is a beautiful flower, and it blooms at a time when the summer riot has not yet taken effect, and the spring flowers have already faded.
  • Irises are one of the most unpretentious and beautiful flowers, the flowering period of which is in the summer.
  • The curly lily is a frost-resistant plant that has a fancy flower that resembles an oriental turban.
  • Ornamental bows are large bushes with "armfuls" of flowers on long stems. These plants are not only very attractive to look at, but they are also edible.

In addition, there are some other garden flowers of the Urals, in particular, you can grow asters, chrysanthemums, clematis, etc. Thus, the choice is very extensive, which makes the garden attractive, bright and colorful.


Actinidia care

Caring for actinidia will be simple if you plant the plant correctly. For more intensive growth and simplification of the harvesting process, supports - trellises are installed. Liana care consists in the timely formation of height, watering and fertilization, prevention of diseases and insects.

Watering and fertilizing the soil

Actinidia loves air humidity, but does not tolerate stagnant water at the roots. That is why the plant is watered moderately, monitoring the condition of the soil near the plant's trunk. Morning and evening spraying is what the overseas beauty loves.
The plant responds with gratitude to the nutritional formulations. Potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ash and others are used.

Chlorine compounds and fresh manure are prohibited for use in fertilizing actinidia.

The order of feeding:

  • In early spring - they loosen the soil to a depth of 5 cm, lay mulch and apply 35 g of nitrogen and 20 g of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers
  • During the period of fruit formation - 20 g of nitrogen compounds and 10 g of potassium-phosphorus preparations
  • After removing the fruits, the plant is fertilized with superphosphate and potassium chloride.

The plant does not tolerate the lack of nutrients, but it reacts even worse to "overfeeding". It is not recommended to increase the amount of the drug or the frequency of depositing funds.

Pruning and shaping the crown of actinidia

Actinidia is a fast-growing vine that needs pruning regardless of age. A young plant is pruned in order to form a crown, an adult - to eliminate thickening. At any age, dry branches and diseased shoots should be removed from vines.
The best time for pruning is summer. The plant is “sheared” immediately after flowering. Autumn pruning provides for the sanitary formation of the bush. But in many regions it is impossible, since after summer the cold immediately sets in. In such cases, shaping and sanitary pruning are combined.

Winter hardiness of actinidia

Modern varieties of actinidia are able to withstand low temperatures, for example, kolomikta feels great at temperatures below 30 degrees.
The first years after planting, a young vine needs cover - its roots are covered with dry leaves, spruce branches or plastic wrap.
For most varieties, the danger is not winter frosts, but spring frosts, which damage young shoots, buds and buds. Spring frost up to 8 degrees can not only destroy the crop, but also destroy the vine
completely.

Planting plants near buildings reduces the impact of frost on the crop. It is worth taking care that melt water from the roof does not fall on the culture.


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