Everything you wanted to know about humic fertilizers

 Everything you wanted to know about humic fertilizers

After decades of using garden chemistry, many gardeners are increasingly imbued with the importance of preserving the natural balance, increasing the number of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, increasing the plant's own immunity instead of using agents against diseases. Only the lazy has not heard about natural farming. And therefore, when choosing fertilizers, preference is given to those that improve the composition of the soil and help the beneficial microflora multiply in it. These include humic fertilizers, or humates. However, their application has its own nuances and rules.

What are humic fertilizers?

Humates are a mixture of humic acid salts with fulvic acid salts and natural trace elements. They are used in industry, animal husbandry and medicine. We are interested in humates for plants, which are obtained from decomposed organic matter, for example, peat. Such substances were first found by scientists about 50 years ago in the soil humus - a fertile layer. On garden crops, they act as growth stimulants and vitamins (that is, they strengthen the immunity of plants).

Humates work as soil improvers, resulting in better growing garden crops

The benefits of humic substances are great:

  • the water balance of fertile soil is regulated - heavy soils become more permeable, and light soils retain moisture better;
  • the air permeability of heavy soils improves - they better let air through to the roots of plants;
  • the density of the soil decreases and its structure improves;
  • there is more humus in the ground;

    As a result of the introduction of humic fertilizers, soil fertility increases

  • redox processes in plants are enhanced, which significantly reduces the amount of nitrates in them;
  • harmful substances in soil, water and air are neutralized, plants do not absorb them;
  • the activity of beneficial soil bacteria increases, and not only in the year of introduction of humic substances, but also in subsequent years;
  • plants also better assimilate nitrogen and phosphorus soils, which, thanks to humates, pass into a form that is easier for processing;
  • since the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers is higher, their quantity can be reduced by about a third.

Humic substances go well with mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen and potassium, as well as with manure, bird droppings, ash and other organic matter. But phosphorus must be added to humates, at the same time with them it will dissolve poorly in the soil.

Varieties of humic fertilizers

Some humates are sold purified from impurities - these are humic preparations. They are of two types:

  • potassium humate is the most widespread of humic fertilizers. It has neutral acidity, can be used on all types of soils, and is enriched with trace elements. Use top dressing to treat seeds, potato tubers, cuttings or seedlings - that is, before planting plants;

    Potassium humate has neutral acidity

  • sodium humate - has a lower acidity (pH - up to 10), therefore it is used mainly on acidic and neutral soils. It helps plants to fight stress: increases the resistance of young plantings to freezing, improves the safety of foliage, flowers and ovaries in bad weather (cold, strong wind and rain or, conversely, heat), increases plant resistance to pest attacks.

    Sodium humate increases stress resistance of plants

In addition to preparations, there are also humic fertilizers, which, in addition to humic salts, contain in their composition another substrate (peat, sapropel), they are usually introduced in the fall for digging, like manure and humus. During their production, nitrogen and potassium are usually added, as well as trace elements, since humic salts improve the absorption of minerals into the soil. Such fertilizers are called organomineral fertilizers.

Liquid or dry preparation: which is better to use

Humic fertilizers are produced in the form of granules (powder), paste, gel or liquid concentrate. Each form has its own characteristics:

  • granules are cheaper, but it is more difficult to dilute them, it takes time for the solution to settle (about three days);
  • paste and gel are the most expensive, but the most rapidly dissolving;
  • the liquid concentrate is average in price, diluted easily and quickly, but contains particles of the substance, it must be filtered, like a solution prepared from granules.

Photo gallery: humic substances in different forms

To dissolve granules of potassium humate or sodium humate, use a funnel with special filter paper. In order to accurately observe the dosage of dry matter, if it is small, and there are no scales at hand, use the following technique:

  1. Take a teaspoon of granules (about 3 g), pour the substance into the fold of a piece of paper folded in half.

    For convenient dosing of dry humic substance, it is convenient to use ordinary paper

  2. By shaking, distribute the granules along the fold into a thin strip.
  3. Divide the substance into the required number of parts with a needle.

It is convenient to use a syringe to dissolve the liquid concentrate. For example, an insulin syringe has very small divisions (up to 0.05 ml).

Rules for the use of humates when used on different crops

The scope of application of humic salts is extensive:

  • seed treatment before sowing;
  • feeding during the period of growth and fruit formation;
  • disinfection of soil after diseased crops or the use of chemicals;
  • preparation for the new season by introducing together with organic matter for digging.

They can be used for all garden crops.

Humic fertilizers can be used for irrigation and spraying of all garden crops

Humates are very useful in a greenhouse, where the soil is depleted year after year and there is no way to replace it in full. Increasing soil fertility through the introduction of humic fertilizers and humic preparations solves this problem.

The effectiveness of humic acids depends on the type of soil:

  • heavy loams respond best to the introduction of humates;
  • on chernozems, their effect is least noticeable;
  • low-fertile sod-podzolic soils can be significantly improved by using humic fertilizers.

Tomatoes, peppers and eggplants

These crops are very responsive to humates. They begin to use them even before sowing seedlings by soaking the seeds in a solution of potassium humate (4 ml per 1 liter of water) for 15 hours. Thanks to this procedure, the seeds germinate 2-3 days faster, and the percentage of germination increases.

The grown seedlings are fed with a 0.1% solution of sodium humate (30-40 ml per bush) before planting in a greenhouse or on a garden bed, and a week after planting they are watered with a more liquid solution (0.05%), 2 liters per 1 m2 landings.

Humic fertilizers help to get a larger crop of tomatoes in the greenhouse and in the open field

For better growth and fruit setting, tomatoes and eggplants are sprayed with a solution of the same concentration in the amount of 1 liter per 1 m2 twice a month, and peppers every week. It is impossible to pour a solution of humic fertilizer under the root, otherwise the bushes may begin to build up a green mass to the detriment of fruit formation.

Potatoes

For better germination of tubers, they are soaked in potassium humate (to prepare a solution, mix 5-6 g of the drug with 10 liters of water) for 12 hours.

Potato yield will be higher if tubers are kept in a solution of potassium humate before planting

Already grown bushes are watered at the root with a 0.1% solution in a glass (250 ml) per plant once every two weeks.

Cucumbers

Cucumber seeds are usually not processed before planting, they sprout well anyway, especially modern hybrids (marked F1). On the bushes growing in the greenhouse (especially if the land is depleted, green manures were not sown, a lot of mineral fertilizers were used), humic acids can significantly improve the yield and generally improve the health of the plants.

Cucumbers are watered at the root with the same solution as tomatoes (0.05% or 0.1%), once a week at the rate of 1 liter per 1 m2 greenhouses.

Video: feeding cucumbers with potassium humate

Greens, radishes and onions

The seeds of these crops can also be soaked in a solution of potassium humate (1 liter per 1 kg of seeds) for 10 hours. After the formation of two true leaves on radishes, dill or parsley, plantings are sprayed with a working solution of sodium humate (4 ml per 3 l of water) per 1 m2 beds. The procedure is repeated after one to one and a half weeks.

Since onions for the garden are bought most often with sevka, it is not necessary to process it before planting in the ground, but after the first feathers come out, the spicy culture is sprayed with the same sodium humate solution 3 times with an interval of 10 days.

Green crops, radishes and onions are sprayed with sodium humate solution twice during the growing season

Carrots and beets

Seeds of carrots and beets can be soaked in a solution of humic acids for 10 hours (1 liter of solution is prepared from 4 g of dry fertilizer and 1 liter of water, you can process 1 kg of seeds). After the emergence of seedlings, the beds are sprayed 3 times with a break of 2 weeks with the same solution as for greens and onions.

Beets respond well to humate feeding

Cultures indifferent to humates

Although humic fertilizers can be applied to the entire garden, there will definitely be no harm, but not all crops respond equally well to these substances. For example, all pumpkin seeds, legumes (beans and peas), sunflowers, corn do not show any particular increase in yield when humates are applied.

However, it is important to understand here that it is not so much a matter of culture, but of the conditions of its growth: for example, traditionally southern crops such as sunflower and corn, provided that they are grown on chernozem soils, do not need abundant fertilizing - black soil is so fertile.

An excellent harvest will grow on fertile soils even without humic fertilizers

Reviews of gardeners

Humic fertilizers are produced by various companies. Regardless of the form of release, these substances improve the structure of the soil, increase its fertility, help seeds grow more amicably, it is easier for seedlings and young plants to endure the vagaries of the weather, and increase yields without harming the garden crops themselves and the environment.


Compost maturation accelerator

Compost is a safe universal fertilizer for all plants. In this case, there will be no overdose, and the main component of fertile soil - humus - will be added. Humus is a product of processing plant residues and waste products of domestic animals.

The microorganisms living in the soil pass them through their digestive tract. As a result of interaction with bacterial enzymes, humic acids are obtained, which, like a shell, interact with nutrients - nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other microelements that plants feed on.

The decomposition process of components in the compost heap is quite long - from one to two years with the natural processing of residues. To make the compost rot faster, compost accelerators are used.

They come in a variety of bacteria, home-made or store-bought. You can quickly make fertilization even with the help of earthworms, you just need to know what conditions they prefer, and what kind it is desirable to use.


The first acquaintance with snails and slugs

I saw the first grape snail sitting on a fence made of corrugated board at a height of about one and a half meters. It was April, I was busy planting seedlings, and I had no time for snails - he sits and let him sit. But in vain! It was necessary to immediately inquire on the Internet what kind of beast it was and what threatens the neighborhood with it.

Two days later, under the cover of spunbond, a third of the eggplant seedlings were eaten to hemp. A pair of snails was found in the corner of a covered, fenced garden. Out of anger, I launched them over the fence into the river. A few days later, the vengeful relatives finished my eggplant. Not only that, they literally mowed young shoots of melon with cotyledon leaves.

A detailed inspection of the site showed that the snails are dark here. Also slugs. And no seedlings will be enough to feed this pack.

Grape snails turned out to be close relatives common garden snails and a little more distant - homeless homeless slugs. They differ from the garden ones by twice their size (5 cm and 2.5 cm shell, respectively), pronounced "crocodile" relief of the outer upper covers and the color of the shell.

Their food preferences are almost the same, although, of course, the grape snail will eat more. They grow up to a year, live in nature for about 7 years.

Their homeless cousins slugs differ in size, less mobility, shorter life expectancy (1 year), but their diet is practically the same. The absence of a house increases their vulnerability by an order of magnitude. But it makes it possible to move in the soil. Therefore, the vast majority of slug species live there.

Deserve special mention Caucasian garden slugs... Slightly smaller than a grape snail, active and voracious, they were previously known only in the Caucasus and Crimea. Then they began to settle in warm places - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, the Caspian regions. And now they are found almost throughout Europe, in Kazakhstan and in Primorye. In many places they are listed in the Black Book of invasive (entered) species. Aggressive, like ragweed or Sosnovsky's hogweed.

Not only do they eat a lot, devouring their less nimble relatives, but they also actively reproduce. And also, according to some reports, both laid eggs and young individuals overwinter. In all other slugs, either eggs or young individuals overwinter.

Garden snail Grape snail. © Tatiana Nikolina


Zion is not a fertilizer! But what's inside?

Simply put, zeolite is enriched with a balanced set of basic nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (the technology of this enrichment, by the way, is kept in strict confidence). Nutrients are available to the plant only in exchange for the ions of its own metabolites. Therefore, an overdose of food elements, as well as a root burn, are impossible. It turns out that the plant itself will take as many missing elements as it needs. And you will forget about fertilizing with fertilizers with their alternation, frequency, dosages and other "dances with a tambourine."

Nutrients in "Zion" are in a bound form on the functional groups of the ion-exchange substrate and are not washed out by water, which means they work for a long time. Once we add the product according to the instructions when planting - and three years no additives will be required. The line includes several varieties of the Zion nutritional supplement - for greens, for vegetables, for flowers, for strawberries, universal and for conifers.


6 types of nutritional supplements "Zion"


Organic matter for digging

The properties of organic fertilizers - to restore the amount of humus and improve the biochemical composition of the soil - have been known for a long time. Ever since the days of Ancient Egypt, when people were waiting with hope for the flooding of the Nile and only then began to cultivate the land and plant agricultural plants. On the desert sandy soil, organic matter was enough for only one season, since the rains quickly washed out the nutrients and they sank into deep layers.

It is easier with chernozems, loams and sandy loams: useful substances are retained in them longer, especially long-playing organic substances. What is the fertilization of the earth in the fall and the effect of fertilizing on plants.

Wood ash

Ash fertilizers are applied in the fall for digging under perennial plants.In the autumn, it is dangerous to lay fertilizers, which include nitrogen, as this can give an impetus to plants for new growth of shoots. Before winter, young branches will not have time to woody and freeze.

As a result, a fungal or bacterial infection will get into the wounds, after which the plant will have to be treated - a tree or shrub. The ash contains potassium, phosphorus and trace elements that vegetation needs for immunity. There is no nitrogen in the ash - it all evaporates when burning plant residues and wood.

The ash solution is made 6 to 7 days before the intended application so that the nutrients are transferred into the water. In this form, they are better absorbed by the roots. You need to take 300 g of ash for a bucket of water.

How to fertilize fruit trees correctly:

  • Around a bush or tree, dig a trench 15 - 20 cm deep.
  • It is good to shed soil - up to 200 liters for each mature tree.
  • Pour the ash solution into the recess evenly.
  • Fill the trench with soil.

Usually, fertilizing of fruit trees is carried out after pruning, as well as bushes of raspberries, gooseberries, currants. If you use ash, then autumn liming of the soil is not required. Ash has an alkaline reaction due to the calcium in it, therefore the simultaneous use of lime and ash can lead to strong alkalization of the soil. This threatens plants with poor assimilation of phosphorus and iron.

Bone flour

Long-lasting organic fertilizer made from animal residues decomposes for a long time in the soil.

It is customary to use bone meal once every 3 years. This is enough for the plants to be provided with phosphorus and calcium. Potash fertilizers are laid along with bone meal, since these substances interact well.

And the introduction of nitrogenous fertilizers in the fall will be a waste of money, because nitrogen decomposes quickly and is poorly retained in the soil. It is useless to add it to an empty garden bed, but it is dangerous for perennials. This fertilizer is left in the spring, when the active growth of greens and shoots begins.

For embedding in the ground, use a dry substance or an extract. The amount is calculated based on the type: steamed, concentrated or regular. The largest percentage of phosphorus is 35% in fat-free concentrated bone meal. Fertilizers containing phosphorus are the most useful than fertilizing the soil in the fall. When to apply autumn fertilizers, it has already been said: after the harvest, so as not to leave all the work for August and September.

Manure

An expensive pleasure than fertilizing the land in winter. But if the farm has cattle or poultry, then feeding the plants in autumn with liquid infusion will benefit the future harvest.

The manure contains nitrogen and potassium, trace elements. There are also negative sides:

  • the presence of weed seeds that will germinate in spring
  • parasites live in the manure and can infect the soil with larvae.

It is better to make compost from manure. After overheating, all negative aspects disappear. The maturation process of compost is long - from 9 to 12 months, but it is a valuable nutrient.

Siderata or how to fertilize the land in autumn if there is no manure

Siderata on the farm are much cheaper, and in terms of nutrient content they are not inferior to manure. If the question is, what fertilizers to apply in the fall for digging for potatoes, then you can simply sow white mustard in the garden in August, wait until it grows 15 - 20 cm and mow it. They practice a method in which the green manure is not cut, but left on the site under the snow. During the winter, the greenery lays down and in the spring it can be dug up already when planting potatoes.

There is also a method of how to fertilize the land without manure: cut the greens of the siderat and take it to another bed. Roots will remain in the soil, which will decompose over the winter. At the same time, tubules will be left in the ground through which water and air will flow. It is not necessary to loosen or dig the soil.

How to fertilize the land in the fall at their summer cottage:

  • mustard
  • cereals - rye, oats, barley
  • lupine
  • clover
  • legumes - peas, beans.

It is important to ensure that the green manure does not have time to bloom. After flowering, their nutrient content drops sharply, so it is necessary to embed them in the soil before branching.


For feeding dill, different types of fertilizers are used: organic, humic, complex, and also folk remedies are not neglected. Let's talk about each in more detail.

Organic

The most common organics include:

  1. Manure Is a popular fertilizer for dill. Microorganisms living in manure decompose organic matter into simple elements. Plants assimilate them and delight us with fast growth and large harvest. Dung contains metals useful for plants: copper, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt. So it can be called a balanced product. For feeding, manure is diluted with water 1:10.
  2. Peat have been used for feeding as long as manure. The task of peat is to improve the composition of the soil. The dark color of the peat attracts the sun's rays, and the seedlings grow faster. It is better to use peat on alkaline soils, it contains a lot of acids.
  3. Green fertilizers done by chopping up parts of plants, such as legumes or nettles. Zelenka is buried in the ground. And an infusion is made from nettle, diluted with water 1: 6. The beds are watered every 7-10 days. The use of green fertilizers improves the structure of the subsoil, it receives nutrients from decay.
  4. Compost good because you can add anything you want there: tops, dry leaves, sawdust, manure, peat. Therefore, a wide variety of nutrients are provided in the compost bed. It is better to fertilize the soil with compost before sowing.

Organic fertilizers

Organic matter improves the structure of the soil, maintains the correct balance of moisture and air, and supplies plants with nutrients. It is also a food source for microorganisms living in this soil. This is how humus is created, and why this is important, you will find out below.

Simple mineral

Dill often grows poorly due to a lack of three important elements: phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. Simple mineral feeding will fix the problem.

  • Nitrogen fertilizers increase yields, make the shoots strong and the foliage thick. Nitrogen from such feeding is easily absorbed and promotes the rapid growth of dill. Nitrogen fertilizers include: nitrate (ammonium, sodium, calcium), carbamide (urea), ammonium sulfate.
  • Phosphate fertilizing accelerates the appearance of foliage, and it is this that we eat. These include superphosphate, monohydrogen phosphate, precipitate, etc.
  • Potassium supplements improve photosynthesis, increase resistance to fungi. Potassium salt is the most popular supplement.
  • Microfertilizers contain a set of microelements: boron, zinc, molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, iodine, etc.

Complex mineral

Simple mineral fertilizers consist of only one element. The complex includes several components. Most often, phosphorus and nitrogen are combined, potassium is added to the composition of the three components. Complex fertilizers come in the form of dry mixtures or liquid. In different formulations, the percentage of substances is different, you need to carefully read the description and not neglect the recommendations. A big advantage of complex fertilizers is the presence of trace elements and biostimulants. After such a cocktail, your dill will not have to be fed with anything else.

Humic

Not so long ago, liquid fertilizers appeared in stores, which our gardeners look at with caution - humic fertilizers. This type of fertilizer is based on humus - a product of the soil microfauna. I dined with a worm or a bug, and as a result - humus. There is a lot of it in organic substances: peat, brown coal, silt. These products are processed, microelements are added and offered to us as top dressing. Strictly speaking, humic fertilizers and not fertilizers at all. These are stimulants that do not supply nutrients themselves, but create special conditions under which the properties of the soil are improved.

Dill after feeding

Plants in a soil enriched with humic acids are more resistant to diseases, tolerate weather changes more easily, and their taste improves. Dill in such a bed grows juicy, with emerald greens. The seeds are stored better and germinate more easily.

Special

There are many types of feeding, a novice gardener will not get confused for long. Therefore, manufacturers began to produce special fertilizers. You don't need to break your head, the package says: this is for potatoes, and this is for garlic. There are such fertilizers for greenery.

Organomineral fertilizers, including vermicompost

Can be selected in powder or liquid form. The composition in such fertilizers is specially balanced to prevent the accumulation of nitrates. They stimulate leaf growth and chlorophyll production. It is easy to choose a special fertilizer for dill and it is not difficult to use it. Liquid special fertilizers are suitable for foliar feeding.

Folk fertilizers

Tradition lovers also have plenty to choose from. If the growth of dill is not happy, it can be fed with folk remedies.

  • Yeast make the soil loose, which is important on alumina: 100 grams of raw baker's yeast is diluted in a glass of water, insisted for several hours. Then add to a bucket of water. Dill is poured with yeast solution every two weeks.
  • Ash has been used as a top dressing for centuries. It is rich in phosphorus, potassium, calcium. It contains iron, silicon, sulfur, manganese. But there is no nitrogen in the ash. Ash is good everywhere, but it is especially useful on acidic soils. The increased calcium content helps deoxidation. This is important for dill; it grows poorly on acidic soil. When feeding with ash, pathogenic microflora in the soil is suppressed. Some pests do not like ash. Ash is used in two ways. In pure form, scattering over the area before digging or adding to the holes. And if there are already seedlings, then they are diluted with water in a proportion of 300 grams per 10 liters of water and watered.
  • Ammonia also used as a folk remedy. There are different opinions about him. Professional agronomists point out the imperfection of its application. Gardeners claim that only they are saved. An aqueous solution of ammonia is good because it is rich in nitrogen, and there are no unnecessary substances in it. In addition, it is a weak alkali, therefore, ammonia deacidifies the soil. As we remember, acidic soil is not suitable for our spicy grass. Dill, like all plants, tends to accumulate nitrates, but it is impossible to overfeed it with ammonia. Due to the toxicity of ammonia, it is successfully used in pest control. Water is added to ammonia before use. The proportions depend on the crop and the processing purpose. In order to water dill, usually take 1 teaspoon of ammonia and 1 liter of water.

Important! Ammonia is a toxic substance and must be handled with care.


How to protect crops from snails and slugs?

Eaten seedlings made me look for ways to solve this problem. Thinning the population by hand harvesting and feeding chickens is a very good method. The black film, laid in the aisles, will collect some of the slugs by morning. And if you also put a container with beer under the film, there will be much more slugs.

Snails love to "hang out" under stones, logs, in fenced beds - near the sides, both outside and inside. Sprinkling the side of the garden bed and the gaps between the seedlings with coffee grounds turned out to be an effective method - for some reason snails and slugs do not share my love for coffee. This winter, I put all the coffee grounds on dry land and put them in containers for spring protection of seedlings.

According to my observations, in plants with rough leaves (melons, pumpkins, zucchini), slugs and snails eat only seedlings with cotyledon leaves. Plants planted with seedlings remain alive.

They are quite capable of protecting young plants, at the same time providing them with semi-greenhouse conditions, plastic bottles without a bottom, 3 centimeters stuck into the ground. For air exchange, you can make holes with an awl. Remove the cover only for watering.

Snails and slugs do not like to crawl on mulch from cones, nuts, seed husks, rice and oat husks. But almost all of this, except for cones, will certainly attract mice and birds - here you need to thoroughly think about where and how to mulch.

As a siderat, mustard can limit the harm caused by slugs - the root secretions of mustard contain sulfur, which wireworms and slugs dislike.

Slugs don't like ash either. In my strawberries, where there are no ash from the heart, slugs and snails, they eat the berries hanging along the edges.

A family of hedgehogs will help a lot if you manage to settle them on your site. Toads are also good helpers in destroying slugs, and it's not bad to attract them. And lizards also help us, especially spindles, which look like plump snakes. They are great at eating slugs, even the denticles on the radula of these lizards are bent inward, which makes it easy to catch and hold these slippery creatures.


Watch the video: Results of using humic acid, spoon feeding your lawn u0026 HYDRETAIN