All about the radish. Part 1: What is a radish?

All about the radish. Part 1: What is a radish?

  • The history of the radish
  • The value of the radish
  • Biological features of radish
  • The ratio of radish to growing conditions
  • Radish varieties

"How wicked!" - we say, praising the sharp, juicy radish... Mustard oil, which makes it angry, is found in all root vegetables of the cabbage family, close relatives of mustard, and in tender radishes, and in sweet turnips, and in rutabagas, and even in cabbage itself. I must say that the radish is more suitable for thrill-seekers.

The history of the radish

The history of the radish is lost in ancient times, even then its unique nutritional and medicinal benefits were known. In all likelihood, the homeland of this root crop is the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This is evidenced by the materials of archaeological excavations and the monuments of written art that have come down to us. More than five thousand years ago, it was cultivated in Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Ancient Greece and Rome. Images of radish are found in Egyptian wall paintings. This indicates that it has been cultivated since time immemorial. Vegetable oil was made from radish seeds in Ancient Egypt, and food was prepared from the roots. By the way, the radish is mentioned among the vegetables along with garlic and onions, which were fed to the slaves during the construction of the pyramids. The Greeks already knew several varieties of radish and believed it was best to eat it before lunch because it aids digestion. Moreover, our ancestors ate not only root crops, but also radish leaves. Avicenna noted that "spring radish leaves, when boiled and eaten with olive oil, are more nutritious than root vegetables."

Radish came to the Russian land from Asia in ancient times. The proverb says about its meaning in the life of our people better than many words: "Seven changes, and everything is radish: tricha radish, chunk radish, radish with kvass, radish with butter, radish in pieces, radish in cubes and whole radish." In Russia, it is grown in the central and northern regions in the open field. The famous gardener Efim Grachev, who has repeatedly received medals, once presented a radish more than half a meter long at an international exhibition. Such root crops are rare in our country. The largest radishes grow in Japan - up to 15 and even 30 kg. There is a different climate. But the Russian radish is inferior to the Japanese only in size, it is much sharper and "meaner" than it. And if the radish were good, it would not whet the appetite so much and, most importantly, would lose its healing properties. In the old days it was called a penitential vegetable. Most of the radish was eaten during the days of repentance during the seven-week Great Lent, the longest and most painful of all Church fasts. They did not play weddings during Great Lent, they did not eat meat or butter, they did not drink milk - it was a sin. But it was not forbidden to eat vegetables. Lent falls in the spring, when there was no more fresh cabbage and turnips: they cannot be stored for a long time, and modern refrigeration units have not yet been invented. The radish was excellently preserved until May. She just pleasantly enlivened the insipid, monotonous lean menu. However, at any time of the year, on weekdays and holidays, radish was one of the most favorite snacks. As an indispensable component, it was used in the preparation of one of the most ancient Russian dishes - turi. The most ancient folk delicacy - ointment - was also prepared from radish. It was prepared like this: the root vegetable was cut into thin slices and dried in the sun, then it was pounded, sifted through a sieve and, having received rare flour, it was boiled in molasses until thickened, adding various spices there.

The value of the radish

In terms of chemical composition and content of nutrients, including biologically active ones, radish occupies one of the first places among other vegetable crops. Radish roots accumulate 10.5-13.0% of dry matter. In terms of fiber content (1.6-1.8%) among vegetables, it has no equal. The radish contains a lot of mono- and disaccharides (1.5-7.0%), it contains protein (1.6-2.5%), organic acids (0.1%). It contains a lot of vitamin C (8.3-69.8 mg per 100 g) - almost the same as in cabbage, there is a little provitamin A - carotene (0.02 mg per 100 g), as well as B vitamins: B1 (0.03 mg per 100 g), B2 (0.03 mg per 100 g), B6 ​​(0.06 mg per 100 g), PP (0.06 mg per 100 g). Radish is rich in potassium (up to 357 mg per 100 g in white and 1119 mg per 100 g in black), iron in it - 1.2 mg per 100 g, there are plenty of calcium, sulfur and magnesium salts. In terms of the content of these substances, it ranks first among vegetable crops.

The abundance of vitamins and minerals in the radish improves appetite and aids digestion.

Among other useful compounds, the radish contains bactericidal substances - rafanol, katakol, phytoncides and others that inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Root crops contain thioglycollators, which have a bactericidal effect on harmful microflora. Radish is characterized by a large amount of essential oils (25-50 mg per 100 g) and bitter glycosides, in particular methyl mustard oil. The mechanism of the therapeutic action of the radish is associated with the presence of these compounds in it, which just give it a specific aroma, pungency and pleasant bitterness. In addition, the radish contains substances such as lysozyme, which play an essential role in the antibacterial immunity of the human body. Lysozyme is found in saliva and blood. He constantly protects us from the invasion of disease-causing microbes.

Probably, as long as people have been breeding radish, it is known about its healing properties. Even Hippocrates found benefits from taking this root vegetable inside in the treatment of pulmonary diseases and dropsy of the abdomen. Dioscorides advised the use of radishes to improve vision and soothe coughs. Other ancient physicians believed that the radish shatters the stones of the gallbladder and urinary system, stops hemoptysis and increases the secretion of breast milk in lactating women.

Radish is mentioned in the works of medieval medico-botanical poetry, where the healing properties of this plant are described in poetic form:

"The cough shaking the insides is well relieved by the bitter
Eaten by her root, and pounded seed from a radish,
If you accept it, it often heals the plague ... "

And what is the attitude of modern medical science towards radish? In general, she basically confirmed the observations of the ancients. The only exceptions are such formidable infections as plague and malaria, in which the therapeutic effect of the radish is absent. It has been scientifically proven that radish roots and the juice obtained from them have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sputum-thinning, expectorant, antitussive, sedative, diuretic, choleretic and blood circulation-enhancing action in whooping cough, acute and chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bronchoeculosis , urolithiasis and cholelithiasis. Garden radish increases appetite, stimulates the secretion of digestive juice, enhances intestinal motility and diuresis, increases the secretion of bile, and affects metabolism. It is often used in diet therapy for acute and chronic gastritis, especially with a decrease in the secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract to stimulate the secretion of gastric juice and increase intestinal motility. It is also successfully used for liver disease - chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver, as well as the gallbladder (in the form of fresh juice).

Diet food is recommended with its inclusion in vegetable salads. The combination of nutrients contained in fresh radish helps to lower blood cholesterol levels. It is a good way to remove cholesterol from the human body. Radish is effective in treating anemia of various origins, rheumatism, gout, obesity, and is used to increase lactation in nursing mothers. Radish roots are an indispensable tool for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis of the vessels of the heart and brain. For obese patients, foods with a high fiber content are recommended, which are slowly evacuated from the stomach and therefore create a feeling of fullness. These vegetables include radish, as well as turnips and rutabagas.

It is useful for patients in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac neuroses accompanied by palpitations. Roots and seeds are used as medicinal raw materials, and the black radish and round shape have the highest healing qualities. In our food it is used only fresh as an additive to various dishes. In China and Japan, it is also consumed salted, dried and boiled with various hot sauces.

Biological features of radish

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) - biennial (winter) and annual (summer) plant. In the first year of life, the plant forms a rosette of leaves and a large root crop weighing 70-500 g. Their shape is different, from flat-round to elongated. The surface of the bark is varied, depending on the variety, color: white, gray-white (pockmarked), green, brown, black, purple, yellow or pink.

In all root crops, a thin tap-fusiform root is formed at first, which is not characteristic of an adult plant. With the appearance of 1 or 2 true leaves as a result of division of the cambial ring, the root begins to increase in diameter. Its thickening is accompanied by rupture of the primary cortex. It dies off, forming dry films on the surface of the root crop. The so-called "molting" of the root crop takes place. Reserve nutrients in radishes, as well as in turnips, turnips and radishes, are deposited in the central part of the root crop - the neck formed from the hypocotal knee and partly due to the root. It does not form root branches. Thickening of the neck in rare-type root crops occurs through intensive division of cambium cells, which, moving to the periphery of the root, deposits juicy cells inside. The bulk of the root crop is represented by its edible part. The bark thickens slightly. Even in mature plants, it reaches a thickness of 2-4 mm. At the same time, in all root crops of this type, except for radish, the bark quickly coarsens. The outer part of the root vegetables of the radish is dense, the thick rind protects the root crops from cracking. The pulp is white, juicy, firm, with a pleasant, but bitter taste. The root vegetable taste of the late long winter radish varieties is much sharper than that of the early varieties.

Radish leaves are large, dissected, pubescent, collected in a large rosette.

The stem of the radish is strongly shortened in the first year. In the second year, a peduncle is formed, but with early spring sowing, it often forms a trunk in the first year. The flower stem of the radish is highly branched and reaches a height of 1.6-2.0 m. The flowering of plants begins in 35-40 days, and the seeds ripen 100-120 days after planting the roots. Summer radish forms flower stalks, like radishes, in the first year.

The flowers are white, pink or purple. The radish is pollinated by bees and other insects.

The fruit of the radish is a pod. If in turnip and swede it opens with two valves when seeds ripen in it, then in radish and radish the seeds are inside the beak of the fruit, which does not open even when fully ripe: the seeds are extracted from it during threshing.

Radish seeds are similar to radish seeds, but they are smaller and more rounded. They have a high germination rate, 85-90% and higher. Under favorable conditions, they germinate 3-5 days after sowing.

The ratio of radish to growing conditions

Radish heat requirements

Radish is cold-resistant. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of +1 ... + 2 ° C. Seedlings tolerate frosts down to -3 ...- 4 ° С. All plants of the cabbage family, and especially radish, at elevated temperatures form flabby, bitter taste and poorly stored roots. The optimum temperature for the radish is +15 ... + 20 ° C. Its leaves tolerate autumn frosts well down to -4 ...- 6 ° C. Prolonged exposure to low temperatures under conditions of increasing daylight hours leads to the appearance of embryonic reproductive organs in plants - flowers and inflorescences, from which fruits and seeds are formed during fertilization. The process of qualitative changes, ending with the complete differentiation of the growth point and the formation of reproductive organs, begins in her from the moment of seed germination and ends in root crops during winter storage at a temperature of 0 ... + 3 ° C. In early ripening varieties of radish, the transition to reproductive development under the influence of low temperatures takes 30-40 days and ends in green plants. Therefore, with early sowing, many early ripening varieties of radish bloom 100%. The duration of the transition to reproductive development and the conditions that accelerate this transition determine the timing of radish sowing.

Radish light requirements

The duration and intensity of the formation of root crops largely depend on the intensity of the light flux. Plants should be provided with the most favorable light conditions by the time the root crops molt. Radish, like all root plants, by photoperiodic reaction refers to long-day plants. With an increase in the duration of daylight, the root crop forms faster. Chinese and Japanese radish on a long day will in most cases arrow.

Radish moisture requirements

All root plants give a high yield only with sufficient moisture supply. Optimum soil moisture should be 75-80% of the full moisture capacity. Radish, like turnip and radish, is the most moisture-demanding plant. Moreover, in dry soil, root crops coarse and become bitter. Lack of water in the soil leads to the formation of flabby root crops. The fact is that in radish, like other root plants of the cabbage family, the organs of the supply of nutrients often form voids and become cottony due to the use of water by the leaves from the juicy part of the pulp. On the contrary, with prolonged moistening, they become watery. All root vegetables of the cabbage family, including radish, are very sensitive to air drought. When the relative humidity of the air drops to 40%, their growth stops, and the quality of the crop deteriorates.

Radish requirements for soil nutrition

It should be remembered that plants such as radish, rutabagas, radishes, on too light soils, form flabby roots with a pungent taste. Radish is hygrophilous, therefore, on sandy soils, it can give a good harvest only with watering. Record yields can be obtained on well-cultivated soils under favorable climatic conditions.

The radish must be placed on fertile, non-acidic, medium loamy soils with a deep cultivated layer. Heavy, cold soils are unsuitable for it. In the process of forming a high yield, plants consume a large amount of nutrients. Fresh or semi-decomposed manure should not be applied under the radish, since its use, although it enhances the growth of plants, reduces the quality of the crop and the content of sugars, which affect not only the taste, but also the safety of root crops. Moreover, fresh manure for radish is unsuitable, as it causes hollowness and rotting of the core of the root crop, like in the turnip.

Radish plants for the normal formation of the yield of root crops need sufficient supply of nutrients in the ratio of N: P: K as 4: 6: 6 g per 1 m² in terms of active ingredient. From mineral fertilizers, they more intensively assimilate potassium.

Radish varieties

In the non-chernozem zone, there are both early ripening varieties intended for summer consumption, as well as mid and late ripening varieties intended for winter storage. In Russia, the assortment of radish is represented in the State Register by nine varieties of various ripening periods.In early-ripening varieties, root crops are formed in 55-90 days, in late-ripening varieties in 100-120 days. Widespread varieties of summer radish: Delicacy, Ladushka, Odessa-5, Sultan, as well as winter: Graivoronskaya, Winter round white, Winter round black, Levina, Chernavka. Root crops of summer radish, in contrast to winter ones, are poorly stored. Recently, varieties and hybrids of Japanese radish (daikon) with large, up to 900 g root crops, similar in color and shape to radishes Dragon, Dubinushka, Emperor F1, Sasha, Favorite, Flamingo F1 and Chinese ( forehead) - Fang of an elephant.

Valentina Perezhogina,
candidate of agricultural sciences


All about radish

Part 1: What is a radish?
Part 2: Growing Radish
Part 3: Application of radish


Where do vitamins live?

Vitamins and trace elements are unevenly distributed in the root vegetable, but each part of the radish has something to boast about.

The closer you get to the tops, the more vitamin C is in the radish. So don't throw the hard "tops" into the trash can. By the way, the tops themselves can compete with the pulp in terms of the ascorbic content, and the skin is even superior to both, and therefore try to cut the skin as thin as possible.

The core of the radish is rich in fiber, which improves digestion and serves as a breeding ground for the beneficial microbes that inhabit our intestines. In addition, in the middle there are a lot of plant sugars that are good for the heart muscle.

Tail. It contains the most essential oils that increase appetite and strengthen the immune system.


Cough - fight!

But, perhaps, the most popular stinging roots gained from those who at least once used them as an expectorant when they had tracheitis or bronchitis. Having cut out the middle of the radish and filled it with honey, our grandmothers and mothers successfully regaled us with the tart-sweet juice released in the formed hole in order to expel the difficult-to-separate phlegm from our bronchi.

Valeria Fatikhovna considers this method of obtaining expectorant juice unproductive. It is much more effective to cook radish juice by rubbing it on a grater together with the peel, and then squeezing it through cheesecloth into an enameled dish, which must be covered with a lid. In the resulting juice, you can add honey in a ratio of 1 to 1 and take 1 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day.

Do not squeeze the remaining cake strongly and in no case throw it away! It can be used to make wonderful ... mustard plasters, or redwood plasters. Valeria Fatikhovna got this recipe from her grandmother, a great craftswoman of traditional medicine. Following this recipe, the radish cake should be used immediately after receiving the juice. Having wrapped the cake in cheesecloth, distribute it in an even layer and place it under the shoulder blade for 15–20 minutes. And there is no polyethylene on top (the reaper must "breathe"), just a cloth or towel, covering it with a pillow. Grandmother Maclura guarantees: very soon a rare compress will warm up no less than real mustard plasters, pulling out the viscous secretion accumulated in them from the diseased bronchi. As soon as the skin turns pink, the thinner must be shifted under another scapula, taking another portion of sips of the thinner juice. After a few days of such therapy, there will be no trace of your bronchitis.

By the way, such lotions are also good for rheumatism, gout, radiculitis, lumbago. If your back is twisted, use the healing power of the black radish, about which, according to ancient Greek legend, Apollo said that it costs as much gold as it weighs itself.


The horse is a devoted friend of man. Part 1

Since time immemorial, the horse has been considered one of man's most loyal friends. She was glorified by poets in odes, magnificent pictures were written about her and whole books were written in which they wrote about a proud, beautiful, graceful animal, beautiful sculptures of these divine creatures were created. There are many legends about horses. One glance is enough to fill the heart with light and love for these noble animals, even those who are afraid of horses are touched by their beauty from afar. The horse has long served a person with faith and truth. Having domesticated it, a person received a friend and breadwinner to help him.

Eagerly, cheerfully he breathes
The fresh air of the fields
The gray steam boils and puffs
From flaming nostrils
Full of strength, brave in the wild,
In a loud voice he whinnied,
The horse started up - and in the field
The Stormfoot galloped!
Rides, sparkling eyes,
He bowed his head wildly
Along the wind he waves
Dissolve the black mane.
Himself, like the wind: whether it will rise
On a way? The brave one hides -
And on it too! The moat will lie
And the stream is swirling? - Instantly,
He's a wide jump
Through them - and it was!
Have fun, zealous horse!
Flaunt your excess strength!
For a short time the waves of the mane
Along the wind you let it go!
Not long life and will
They were given at once to the stormy,
And the cold air of the field
And the steepness is brave
And the rapids are fatal.
Soon, soon under lock and key!
You are daring hooves,
Your mighty run and gallop!
Back to business, zealous horse!
In a harness light and beautiful,
And shining with a saddle,
And strumming with reasons
Slenderly correct steps
You will go under the rider.

For a long time, the horse was used as a meat animal. Horse meat is a dietary product, milk is used to make a delicious and medicinal drink - kumis, horse hair and skin are no less valuable. Much later, the horse began to be used as a draft animal, and was also used as a war animal. Nowadays, the horse does not lose its uniqueness. Until now, people are trying to stay close to this beautiful animal. Today we will not talk about a horse as a meat animal. We will talk about her as a friend of man, as a pet.

Choosing a horse

The horse belongs to the category of equids, they have a large overdeveloped middle toe covered with an ossified hoof-cornea, also on the inside of each leg there are formations similar to calluses, they are called "chestnuts" - this is an indicator of underdeveloped toes. It is a herbivore adapted to run fast. The life span of a horse is about 30 years, with good care it can live much longer.

Adults are divided into three types: light - up to 400 kg, medium - up to 600 kg and heavy - over 600 kg. Usually a horse is a large and strong animal, but a person tried and bred new breeds, such as undersized ponies, or, conversely, huge heavy draft animals. We are going to talk about the normal average horse.

To begin with, if you decide to get yourself such a friend as a horse, you need to decide whether you want an already grown-up outdated horse, or are ready to take a foal and try to raise it on your own. I advise you to take a grown-up and outbound horse of 5 years old. You must clearly understand that the horse will take a huge amount of your time. If your animal will help you with the housework (plowing a garden, pulling a loaded cart), then you should choose a medium or large healthy animal. In the event that you take a horse for the soul (riding, a friend for a child), not for heavy work, then I advise you to take a closer look at a light warm-blooded breed.

When buying a horse, make sure that it has a passport and breeding certificate. If you decide to buy an animal from a private owner, you will have to determine the degree of "health" of the future pet yourself. The age of the horse plays an important role in the purchase; this is almost the most important selection criterion. The horse must be young, 5-7 years old.

Further, you decide who is more needed: a mare or a gelding. Stallions often "play", they can throw off an inexperienced, even bite, in general only experienced horsemen who are not afraid of "games" and intimidation of "vigorous" animals deal with stallions. So, you have come to watch the horse. Go to the stall (this is the place in the stable where the animal is kept), take a look around the place of detention. The stall should be dry, warm, light, spacious. Look into the feeder - the feed should be of high quality, mold-free hay, not damp. The feeder should not be nibbled, if this is the case, then the quality of the feed is poor. Everything is fine? You can start examining the horse.

A normal workhorse needs to be strong and healthy. She should have a wide, deep chest. A thorough examination begins with the head. It is necessary to determine if the eyes are healthy. There are no spots on the pupils, determine whether the pupil reacts to different degrees of illumination, there should be no crusts on the eyelids. If the horse's pupil does not respond to different degrees of light, then the animal is weak in the eyes, it may even be blind, although the eye may look quite healthy. See, do not be deceived!

Nostrils. Must be dry, without heavy discharge, and odorless. If the horse has pus and odor, this is a sign of a medical condition.

Examine the ganaches (corners of the lower jaw). There should be no cracks, crusts, festering wounds, tumor formations. The normal distance of ganache is 8-9 cm.

Teeth. An examination of the animal's teeth should be carried out once every six months up to 5 years and once a year from 5 to 15 years. To do this, use a yawner to keep the mouth open. Usually, when examining the teeth, horses are given sedatives so that the animal does not get nervous or frightened. The number of teeth in stallions is 40, in mares - 36. Throughout life, from the very moment when the horse began to eat hay and grain fodder, gradual wear of teeth began to occur.

The ears and neck are examined for skin diseases. The neck should be long, in proportion to the body.


ORGANIC "GOLD"

Organic fertilizers environmentally friendly to soil and plants. They contain practically all the substances necessary for plant nutrition: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc. They, without any doubt, are the most valuable material for plant nutrition. Judge for yourself: they enrich the soil with nutrients, structure and generally improve its physical properties, establish a water and air regime.

In addition, as a result of the decomposition of organic matter, microorganisms release carbon dioxide, which, as you know, plants breathe.

Any organic matter can become a fertilizer - as nature has ordered. Very cleverly, I must admit, she gave orders. By this she achieved an incessant cycle of life. “There is no death, there is only Life, giving birth to itself without end” - this is how the heroine of M. Semenova's book says. And in relation to garden life, this will be a very correct saying.

For the convenience of farmers, all organic fertilizers were divided into groups - each has its own name and its own application.

Manure - the most complete organic fertilizer. Its composition depends on the type of animals, the type of their feeding, the litter used and its quantity (straw is considered the best, followed by peat, sawdust).

Cattle manure decomposes slowly and does not give much heat. But mullein is often used for liquid feeding. One part of manure is mixed with two parts of water, before adding this mass is re-diluted with water 3-4 times.

Horse and sheep manure, on the contrary, heats up during storage to 70-80 ° C, so it can be used in greenhouses and greenhouses as biofuel. To further improve heat transfer, such manure is mixed with sawdust, bark, leaves, compost, straw, and household waste.

Pig manure contains a lot of nitrogen, so large doses of it can "burn" plants. However, it is poor in calcium, it can increase the acidity of the soil, and when fresh it contains pathogenic microbes and helminths. Therefore, it is better not to use it directly, but to add it to the compost being prepared. The temperature in the compost pit sometimes rises to 60-65 ° C, and the worm eggs die already at a temperature of 55-60 ° C.

According to the degree of decomposition, manure is divided into four types: fresh, semi-matured, rotted and humus. As the manure overheats, it loses its original mass: half-matured - 20-30%, rotted - 50, humus - 70%.

Manure has been in effect for several years. During the first year, 50% of the nutrients it contains are used, the second - 25, the third - 15, and the fourth - 10%. The effect of manure is more effective on heavy soils (5-7 years), on light soils - only 2-3 years.

Using this feature of manure, rules for fruit change are drawn up.

The taste of vegetables largely depends on what kind of manure is used. Beets and parsley will be tastier and more flavorful if you fertilize them with sheep dung. A radish will not be "evil" if the garden bed is fertilized with cattle manure, and onions will become softer and sweeter if horse manure is used, and, conversely, will be bitter and unpleasant from pork. When applied, cabbage acquires an unpleasant odor. The same thing happens with parsley. It becomes hard and uneasy.

Slurry. For the preparation of slurry, a barrel is usually used, dug into the ground or placed in the far corner of the site. It is half filled with manure, sprinkled with ash, and then filled with water. For ten days, the mass must be mixed well, then let it stand for two or three days - and the fertilizer can be applied to the soil.

The ready-made slurry must be diluted with water 2-4 times so as not to burn the roots, and the plants are watered on a cloudy day or in the evening. They make holes near the bushes and trees and fill them with a solution of slurry. A prerequisite for using slurry is incorporation after application. That is, you will simply have to dig it up.

The most effective use of slurry is the preparation of composts from various agricultural waste with the addition of peat.

Bird droppings is a fast-acting fertilizer, since the nutrients in it are contained in a form readily available to plants. Chicken and pigeon droppings are considered the most nutritious, in contrast to duck and goose droppings.

It is important to remember that bird droppings are most effective when used in liquid feed. To prepare the solution, the containers are half filled with droppings, then filled with water, covered with a lid and insisted for 3-5 days. Then the solution is diluted again with water (1:10). Experts do not recommend insisting poultry droppings with water, otherwise it will ferment and lose up to 50% nitrogen.

Peat, silt, feces ... Peat is not suitable for plant nutrition - it contains so many nutrients available to plants. In the garden, it is needed for other purposes - namely, "fertilizing": it increases the humus content and improves the structure of the soil. In addition, due to its dark color, peat absorbs heat well and helps to quickly warm up the beds.

Peat is also different. According to the degree of decomposition, high-moor, lowland and transitional types of peat are distinguished. Horse is characterized by a low degree of decomposition of plant residues and high acidity. Lowland is characterized by a high degree of decomposition and lower acidity. Transitional peat occupies an intermediate position between them.

Peat is collected in swamps, then laid out for ventilation or laid in a compost heap. They bring in peat at any time of the year, even in winter in the snow. But we must not forget that lime must be added to it. In the garden, peat is best added to composts, as well as to soil mixtures for growing seedlings and protected ground.

Silt accumulates at the bottom of ponds, lakes, rivers. It contains a lot of humus, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. After a short airing, the sludge can be successfully used on sandy soils (3-4 kg per 1 m 2).

Feces is the sewage of latrines. They are rich in minerals that are easily absorbed by plants. However, the feces in the cesspools quickly decompose, and nitrogen quickly evaporates from them. For better preservation of nitrogen, peat is poured into the bottom of the cesspool with a layer of 20-25 cm. Then the feces are weekly interbedded with a small amount of peat. As a result, not only nitrogen is retained, but the fetid odor also disappears.The situation with helminths is the same as with pig manure. In some ways, people are still really similar to piglets.

Deciduous and sod land ... Not all summer residents are lucky - not all summer cottages are located where manure can be obtained all year round and for free. But even this grief can be helped.

With a lack of manure, humus is prepared from leaves - deciduous soil. To do this, in the fall, the leaves are raked into heaps, compacted, sprinkled with earth and left for the winter. In the spring, the heaps are shifted with pitchforks, changing the layers in places, and the heaps are covered with black film from above. Over time, the leaves turn into a loose, dark-colored humus mass.

Sod land is necessary as an integral part of the soil mixture when growing seedlings, preparing soils for greenhouses and greenhouses. This land can be harvested in meadows with good herbage. Do not forget that on clay soils and soddy soil is heavier. Sod layers (sod) are cut up to 10 cm thick and in a clean shady place are stacked (sod to sod, earth to ground), interlayering with a mullein. In September, the stack is shoveled, and in October, part of the land can be used for growing vegetables in greenhouses or living quarters, after sifting it. The rest of the sod land should lie until spring.

Sawdust and bark. Sawdust is, like peat, such an organic fertilizer that cannot be fed directly to plants, but it can significantly increase soil fertility, improve its air permeability and moisture capacity. Only they should be introduced in advance and not fresh, but rotted or mixed with other materials. To speed up the decomposition process, sawdust is piled up, moistened with water and slurry. You can mix them with fallen leaves and plant debris. It is useful to interlayer sawdust with earth. During the summer, the pile is shoveled twice, adding the accumulated plant debris and nitrophosphate. Due to the fact that sawdust has an acidic reaction, lime or chalk is added to them (120-150 g per bucket).

Bark (waste from the woodworking industry) is also composted before use. The bark with a moisture content of 75% is crushed into pieces 10-40 cm long, piled in a heap and mineral fertilizers are applied (kg per 100 kg): ammonium nitrate 0.9, urea 0.7, sodium nitrate 2, superphosphate 0.2, ammonium sulfate 1 ,five. The pile is periodically mixed and moistened. After 6 months, the compost is ready for use. We agree that it was impossible to do without chemistry here, but after all, chemical fertilizers are not applied directly under the plants, but indirectly - through compost.

IN eggshell contains calcium carbonate, which is a good lime fertilizer. Just do not wait for the result by scattering eggshells over the potato field. We'll have to tinker a little with them. Eggshells must be finely crushed or ground into powder, and even better burned in an oven or over a fire. It is better to introduce the shell together with wood ash, which contains potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and trace elements.


Harvesting and storage

Parsley is cut at any time after ripening. Choose greens from young shoots, as they are much tastier and more aromatic. Ripe shoots have three formed leaves.

You need to cut the greens right under the root crop so that the subsequent harvest is denser. Before the onset of winter, it is necessary to fully harvest the harvest so that in the spring the roots give a good harvest of delicious greenery.

For long-term storage, parsley is frozen or dried, leaving in a dry place. For everyday use, the harvested crop must be stored at temperatures from 0 to +5 degrees. So it can keep freshness, taste and smell for 12-15 days. If the temperature is higher, then it begins to rot or germinate.


Composition of green radish

This seemingly unsightly fruit contains a whole bunch of useful vitamins and minerals, macro and microelements. Everything in order.

  1. IN 1 - regulates the nervous and endocrine system.
  2. AT 2 - needed for the growth and renewal of tissues
  3. Pyridoxine is responsible for the level of hemoglobin in the blood.
  4. Potassium and sodium regulate blood pressure, promote proper kidney function, remove excess fluid from the body.
  5. Calcium ensures normal blood clotting and proper functioning of nerve cells.
  6. Carotene has a beneficial effect on vision


Watch the video: Super Mario Radish Kingdom Adventure #09 OJO CON EL NUEVO MUNDO