Lychee (lat.Litchi chinensis), or litchi chinese - a plant of the Sapindaceae family, which is also called liji, fox, laysi or Chinese plum. There is documentary evidence that in China this fruit tree was cultivated already in the II century BC, but now it is grown in all countries of Southeast Asia. Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza wrote that the lychee fruit resembles a plum that does not burden the stomach and can be eaten in any quantity, which is why he called this culture the Chinese plum.
Litchi was brought to Europe by the French botanist Pierre Sonner from his trip to Southeast Asia and China. It was in the 18th century.
How are lychees eaten? These fruits are good in fresh and canned form, they are used to prepare ice cream, jelly and other desserts, as well as to make traditional Chinese wine. We will tell you how you can grow lychee from a bone at home, as well as what are the benefits or harms of lychee.
Planting and caring for lychees
- Lighting: daylight hours are approximately 12 hours. You need a bright diffused light of western or eastern windowsills.
- Temperature: all year round at least 20 ˚C.
- Watering: regular, moderate, best watered through a sump.
- Top dressing: from the second year of life - 1-2 times a month with a solution of a complex mineral fertilizer in a half dosage or with weak solutions of organic fertilizers.
- Cropping: as needed at the start of the growing season.
- Reproduction: at home only with seeds (bones).
- Pests: aphids, spider mites, thrips, whiteflies, scale insects or mealybugs.
- Diseases: root rot.
- Properties: the fruits of the plant are considered medicinal and are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine.
Read more about growing lychee below.
Lychee is an evergreen tree with a spreading crown, in natural conditions reaching a height of 10 to 30 m. Its leaves are compound, pinnate, consisting of 4-8 lanceolate or elongated ovate leaves with a sharp top. The surface of the leaves is glossy, dark green, and the underside is grayish. Flowers, collected in lush umbrellas up to 70 cm long, do not have petals and consist of a greenish or yellowish calyx. Usually, no more than 15 ovaries develop from the numerous flowers of the inflorescence into fruits, and the rest crumble. Lychee fruits from 2.5 to 4 cm long are clothed in a red peel, covered with numerous sharp tubercles. Inside the fruit, there is a light, jelly-like, sweet pulp that easily comes off the peel and has a barely perceptible wine flavor. In the middle of the fruit is an oval, dark brown seed. In the tropics, lychee fruits ripen in May or June.
Growing lychee from a bone
In our latitudes, lychee is an outlandish plant, so it is difficult to acquire its seedlings in the garden pavilion. But you can try to grow a tree from a bone on your windowsill. To do this, you need to buy ripe (with a strong aroma, in a red peel and with a juicy translucent pulp) lychee fruits, separate the seed from the pulp, wrap the seed with a damp cloth or gauze and keep it in it for a week, keeping the wrapper moist.
In the photo: A branch of a lychee tree with berries
The swollen seed is freed from the tissue and planted in a pot with drainage holes, on the bottom of which a layer of expanded clay is first laid, and then a flower soil. The seed is planted at a depth of 2 cm. Planting multiple seeds will increase your chances of success. After planting, the soil in the pot is watered with cold water. The seed is germinated at a temperature of 25-30 ºC, while the soil should be slightly damp all the time. Sprouts can be expected to appear in 1-4 weeks, but they may appear later.
As soon as the first reddish lychee leaves unfold, the pot is placed on a well-lit windowsill, covering the plant from direct sunlight, and at the stage of development of 4-5 true leaves, the seedlings are transplanted into a large container. Keep in mind that a lychee needs twelve hours of daylight for normal development. As for the air temperature in the room, even in winter it should be at least 20 ºC.
Lychee care at home
Lychee is a moisture-loving tropical plant, so seedlings are sprayed twice a day with boiled or filtered water from a spray bottle. Watering the substrate should be regular but moderate. To moisten the substrate, water at room temperature passed through a filter or settled for two days is also used. It is most convenient to moisten the soil in the pot by adding water to the pan. Develop such a watering regime so that the plant does not suffer from either a lack or an excess of moisture in the roots, and maintain high humidity in the room all the time.
The first time the substrate in a pot with lychee is fertilized three months after germination, and then no fertilizing is applied until the plant is at least a year old. From the second year of life, lychees are fed 1-2 times a month with a solution of complex mineral fertilizers in a moderate concentration. The plant also responds well to organic fertilizing in the form of a mullein solution (1:15). Fertilizers applied to the substrate contribute to the formation of buds and stimulate the plant to bear fruit.
Lychee grows slowly, so it does not need frequent pruning. You will only need to form the crown of the tree in the first two years of life, and then maintain its shape by shortening too long shoots. Even if the tree does not bear fruit, do not be upset: after all, not every amateur grower has such an attractive exotic plant in his house.
Pests and diseases
Diseases and their treatment
Lychee at home is rarely affected by disease. Trouble with the plant can arise as a result of insufficient or improper care. For example, due to excessive watering, the roots of the plant can rot, and if there is insufficient moisture, the lychee will begin to wither and wither. Follow our recommendations, and your tree will never hurt.
Photo: Litchi branch with berries
Pests and the fight against them
Lychee is also resistant to pests, but if aphids, spider mites, thrips, whiteflies, scale insects or mealybugs start on any indoor plants, they can also get over to lychees. Therefore, regularly inspect your plant collection and at the first symptoms of infection with one or another pest, take action immediately: treat the occupied plant with a solution of an insecticidal or acaricidal preparation prepared in accordance with the instructions.
Types and varieties
Breeders have bred many varieties and hybrids of lychee, but this crop is widely grown only in Asia. The most famous plant cultivars are:
- Green dangling - a tree with light green leaves, on the fruits of which a green stripe is barely visible. The fruits do not lose their freshness and taste even three days after peeling them off;
- Glutinous rice balls - the fruits of this variety have dense and sweet pulp with the taste of honey, they have a red peel without tubercles, and the seed is much smaller than that of the fruits of other varieties, or there is none at all;
- Sweet osmanthus - a variety with sweet fruits with the smell of osmanthus, in a bright red and very lumpy skin;
- Green Yatu - in this variety, the peel of the fruit is covered with a dark green speck;
- Black leaf - an early ripe variety with fleshy fruits, the skin of which gives off a juice similar to red ink;
- May red - the earliest variety, the harvest of which is harvested in May;
- Concubine smile - the oldest early ripening variety. The fruits and rind of the plant produce red sap.
In the photo: Lychee berries are a healthy fruit
Lychee properties - harm and benefit
Lychee fruits contain substances useful for the human body: vitamins E, K, C, H, PP and group B (B1, B3, B6), magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, iodine, manganese, zinc, selenium, iron, calcium, potassium, pectins and organic acids.
Oriental medicine uses lychee fruits to normalize sugar levels in diabetes, treat and prevent atherosclerosis, improve the functioning of the kidneys, liver and lungs. People with cardiovascular diseases are shown to eat lychee fruits, since they contain potassium in their pulp. The benefits of lychee have also been proven for anemia, high blood cholesterol, pancreatic diseases and bowel disorders. In Hindu medicine, lychee fruits are considered an aphrodisiac that enhances sex drive and male strength.
Lychee fruits are contraindicated only for those who have found their individual intolerance. For everyone else, they are only beneficial, but stale fruits with a dark skin can cause intestinal upset.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Sapindaceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Plants on L Exotic fruits Sapindae
Evergreen lychee: growing a tree from a bone
Many exotic plants can be obtained from seeds. How to grow lychee from a bone at home, consider the photo below. In wildlife, this evergreen fruit tree reaches a height of 10-30 m! Small elongated fruits with a red skin have a sweetish taste. The skin is completely covered with pointed tubercles. The peel is easily separated from the pulp, which tastes like grapes. The fruit slightly knits the mouth. If you plant a dark brown oval bone in the ground, a sprout will hatch from it.
Where and how does the Caucasian persimmon grow
In nature, wild trees grow in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, in the Krasnodar Territory, as well as throughout the Mediterranean (up to Spain). It is found in the subtropical regions of Eurasia, including in certain provinces of China and in northern India. Prefers foothills 300-600 m above sea level, and in Asia - up to 2000 m.
In most cases, the Caucasian persimmon does not grow in separate groups, but in combination with different trees. Ash trees, maples and other deciduous plants are often its neighbors. The tree is not demanding on conditions; therefore, it is often found even on rocky slopes. At the same time, persimmon is demanding on lighting - it grows well only in open places.
Useful properties of dogwood seed
Since you can swallow dogwood seeds by eating berries, they are not thrown away, but harvested with subsequent use in the treatment of certain diseases. They have the following beneficial properties:
They contain a substance that helps to constrict blood vessels, which has a positive effect on bleeding. The tonic effect is no less effective. It helps with colds, chronic fatigue, and the restoration of immunity.
If the hard core of the dogwood berry is roasted, it can be used instead of coffee, previously ground. It turns out not only delicious, but also a very healthy drink.
Additional benefits of dogwood seeds include the following factors:
- With the help of self-prepared remedies, you can cure diarrhea, hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal tract pathologies, liver.
- They are good for treating diabetes and obesity.
- If you prepare an infusion and rinse your hair with it regularly, you can get rid of oily seborrhea.
- Crushed cores help to restore metabolic processes.
This component from the dogwood berry is often used for nervous system disorders. A healing agent based on them has a good effect on the nervous system - it soothes and tones. Regular consumption of dogwood guarantees good health for years to come.
Pantry of valuable substances
The nutritional value of the fruit is as follows:
- All trace elements contained in lychee help the body to fully absorb vitamins.
- Fats are present in small quantities. Nevertheless, the fruit is an excellent source of energy, which is especially necessary for people engaged in hard physical work.
- Vegetable fibers. Their main merit is that they reduce the risk of bowel cancer by more than 30 percent.
- Proteins. They release energy, which is necessary for many processes in the body, and also protect the skin, hair, nails.
- Sugar. The amount of sugar in fruits can range from 6 to 15 percent. This difference is due to the fact that lychees grow in different areas and have many varieties.
- Groups B - prevent the appearance of nervous diseases, relieve fatigue, remove inflammation, make the skin shiny and healthy, participate in metabolic processes.
- D - helps to absorb calcium from the intestines and plays an important role in bone metabolism.
- C - outnumbered other vitamins in lychee. If there is no lack of it in the body, teeth will begin to fall out, the immune system will not be able to fight a viral infection, and the person will become lethargic.
- E - contributes to the normal functioning of the gonads, the activity occurring in the metabolic process of muscles, prevents the appearance of wrinkles.
- K - takes care of blood clotting, so that internal hemorrhages do not occur, protects the liver.
- Calcium - maintains bone tissue and teeth at the proper level, promotes the functioning of nerve fibers, plays an important role in blood clotting.
- Potassium - in lychee it is most of all, which means that eating the fruit will have a normal metabolism, pathological changes in the heart will be blocked.
- Phosphorus - has the ability to influence cell division, the transfer of hereditary properties, is actively involved in metabolic processes.
- Magnesium is indispensable in the formation of bone tissue, therefore lychees are useful for children during the growth period.
If you provide the plant with favorable conditions for growth, you can count on fruiting:
- Chinese plum photophilous, therefore, you need to settle it on the southern or western windowsill. Plant from direct sunlight on hot summer days need to protectto avoid burns. In winter, additional lighting is required with a phytolamp. Laysi daylight hours should last 13-15 hours.
- Wood does not like draft.
- For vegetation it is necessary high air humidity... For this, spraying is carried out, a container with water is left next to it, etc.
- To water follows abundantly after the surface layer of the soil has dried. Waterlogging is unacceptableso that the roots do not rot. The water should be settled, at room temperature. Laysy does not tolerate drought.
- In autumn and winter, if you need from the plant achieve fruiting, you need to organize a rest period for him with a low air temperature of 10-15 ºС. This promotes the formation of flower buds.
- When grown at home, it is necessary to carry out tree crown formation... In addition, sanitary pruning is needed, during which dried and weak branches are removed.
- Since the plant is a large tree, it requires frequent timely transfer to a larger container... Replant your pet in the spring when it begins to grow actively.
- The first year of lychee can not be feed, start doing it from the second year life. For fruiting, fertilizing is required.For indoor cultivation, it is more convenient to use liquid mineral fertilizers every 1-3 months. In winter, the fox does not need fertilizer.
- The tree will bloom in the third year and, possibly, will form the first fruits.
- On a plant can parasitize scale insects, spider mites, aphids... Try cleaning the aerial part of the tree with soapy water and a soft sponge. After 10 minutes, rinse with running water. If this measure does not help, use insecticides for indoor plants according to the instructions, but not during fruiting!
Under favorable conditions, laysi will produce a bountiful harvest every year. As they ripen, the fruits are immediately harvested, preventing them from overripe. Otherwise, they will darken and become tasteless.
Lychee disease: leaves do not grow and turn yellow, causes (video)
Useful qualities of pomegranate
Pomegranate is rightfully called one of the healthiest fruits. Its fruits contain vitamins P, C, B12, B6, sodium, phosphorus, iodine, fiber, potassium, manganese, iron, magnesium, calcium.
And its juice contains glucose, fructose, acids (apple, lemon, wine, oxalic, boric, amber and others), chloride and sulfate salts, tannin, phytoncides, nitrogenous, tannins.
Pomegranate is a storehouse of vitamins
Due to the presence in the pomegranate of all these useful substances for the human body, and determines its healing qualities. It is recommended for use to improve blood formation, quench thirst, to activate the production of hemoglobin, and the formation of red blood cells in the blood.
And also to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, the nervous system and raise immunity.
Even in ancient times, pomegranate infusion was used as an effective hemostatic agent.
Elderly people are also prescribed pomegranate to recuperate in the postoperative period. Pomegranate grains contain vitamin K, which is necessary for normal metabolism in connective tissues and bones, and is also needed for the absorption of calcium.
Drinking pomegranate juice can help normalize blood pressure
It is recommended as a hematopoietic agent for diseases of the cardiovascular system, circulatory system, respiratory system, kidney, liver.
Women during menopause can also include pomegranate in their diet to relieve symptoms, since it contains estrogens. Tropical fruit helps well in depressive conditions.
Pomegranate is quite popular in vegetarian cuisine.
Considering 15 amino acids in the composition of its juice, most of which are found in meat. It turns out that for people who have completely abandoned meat products, this exotic fruit can fully compensate for the lack of protein.
Another useful quality of pomegranate juice is the presence of a diuretic and choleretic effect, as well as anesthetic and anti-inflammatory effects.
The use of pomegranate has been observed to help with scurvy, uric acid diathesis, atherosclerosis, headaches and gastrointestinal disorders. For people who have undergone radiation, living in a zone of high radiation and whose work is associated with radioactive isotopes, it is definitely recommended to use this fruit.
Patients suffering from anemia, hypertension, bronchial asthma, malaria and diabetes mellitus are also prescribed pomegranate.
Due to the content of alkaloids in the pomegranate peel, the fruit has a strong antihelminthic property
For inflammatory processes in the liver, kidneys, joints, eyes, it is good to use a decoction based on pomegranate peel... Especially, it is good to use it for sore throats, problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
It is known to use pomegranate peel powder slightly fried in olive or butter for cosmetic purposes, as a remedy for oily skin of the face, for the treatment of various injuries of the skin.
The use of pomegranate seeds is quite actively used to improve the work of the intestines, in addition, they are a source of useful pomegranate oil, in which there is a high concentration of fat-soluble vitamins E, F.
They are necessary for rapid healing of wounds, restoration of epidermal cells, for rejuvenation and protection of the body from the development of cancer. With the help of pomegranate extract, you can restore the skin from sunburn.
Contraindications regarding the use of pomegranate
It is not advisable for people suffering from gastritis with high acidity, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer to consume pomegranate juice saturated with acids. If there is a need for its use, then it must be diluted with water.
In addition, pure pomegranate juice can corrode tooth enamel, therefore, immediately after drinking it, it is recommended to brush your teeth and rinse your mouth well with water.
If a person has intestinal problems, constipation, then the fixing property of an exotic fruit can exacerbate this problem. In case of an overdose of decoction from the peel, malaise, dizziness, convulsions may occur, and blood pressure will greatly increase.
In order to prevent a deterioration in general well-being, it is recommended to consult a doctor before using pomegranate decoctions.