Rutabaga is an amazing plant that was obtained as a result of natural pollination of collard greens with turnip. It belongs to cruciferous vegetables. The root vegetable is rich in vitamins and minerals, is widely used in cooking, and is used in the treatment of various diseases. Rutabaga is appreciated and loved in different countries of the world: Germany, Finland, Sweden, the Baltic countries, Russia.
What kind of vegetable is rutabaga
The name of the vegetable was originally mentioned by the Swiss botanist Kaspar Baugin in the 20s of the 16th century. He wrote that rutabaga is found in Sweden. Perhaps this was the reason to consider this particular country as the birthplace of culture.
However, there are those among scientists who suggest that rutabaga came to Scandinavia from the Siberian regions of Russia, where this vegetable was loved along with cabbage or turnips.
Outwardly, the vegetable looks like a turnip or beet, but is large. He has thick dissected leaves. The taste is pleasant, sweetish-spicy. Color - red-violet, gray-green. This plant is biennial. The initial year of its development is accompanied by the formation of an underground root crop (rounded, flattened or elongated - depending on the variety) and a ground rosette of leaves.
Outwardly, rutabaga resembles beets or turnips.
In the 2nd year, a stem develops from the root, the plant blooms, seeds appear in the fruits - pods. 40 days after the emergence of sprouts, the root crop thickens. The inside of the vegetable has a rather hard white or yellow flesh. The culture is unpretentious, perfectly withstands drought, summer heat and the beginning of frost. She gives great yields.
The weight of one root crop even reached 35 kg.
How is it used
The vegetable is used in cooking. In a number of countries, both raw root vegetables and young tops of the plant are used for the preparation of various salads and as a seasoning. Boiled rutabagas, which taste like potatoes, are used in vinaigrette, as well as garnishes for meat and fish dishes.
Children are delighted with a pleasant sweet soup consisting of rutabagas, carrots, processed cheese, green peas, and corn. With honey and nuts in a baked state, the vegetable will become a pleasant dessert. Rutabaga goes well with vegetable stews made from different ingredients.
In Finland, a casserole with rutabaga is always present on the Christmas table. And Canadians love pies stuffed with grated rutabaga.
For the preparation of salads, you can use both raw root vegetables and young plant tops.
The culture has found application in dietetics. Low in calories, high in minerals and vitamins, this vegetable can be used in weight loss diets. The fiber included in its composition helps to eliminate toxins and toxins from the body, improves metabolism, digestion in the body.
A useful cosmetic mask can be made from a vegetable. The grated root vegetable is mixed with sour cream until a gruel is obtained. Then pour in there 1 tsp. brine and honey. The mask is applied to the skin for 15 minutes.
The vegetable is also used for treatment. To alleviate the condition during asthma attacks, when coughing, 2 parts of swede grated on a fine grater are mixed with 1 part of honey. The resulting mixture is consumed 2 (3) hours up to 6 times a day. Constipation is treated with rutabagas. To do this, the vegetable is cut into plates, boiled in water until softened. After that, pour in vegetable oil and lemon juice, 1 tbsp. Cook for 10 minutes. The finished mixture is turned into mashed potatoes with a crush, which is eaten overnight (100 g).
Useful properties and harm
The vegetable contains many valuable components. Calcium contained in rutabaga is essential for strengthening bone tissue. The vegetable helps well with constipation, but it should not be consumed by patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. The root crop is especially useful in winter and at the onset of spring, when the weakened body lacks vitamins.
Rutabaga is especially useful in the winter-spring period, when the body lacks vitamins.
With this vegetable, the body is supplied with the necessary supply of vitamins and microelements, energy increases, and immunity is strengthened. Rutabaga has the following properties that are beneficial to humans:
- diuretic, allowing the body to get rid of excess fluid;
- relieves swelling, treats kidney diseases;
- manifestations of an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory nature, helping in the treatment of purulent wounds, burns;
- a high content of fiber in the root vegetable, which stimulates metabolic processes in the body, allowing to resist obesity;
- a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, normalization of blood pressure;
- promotes the removal of cholesterol.
Rutabagas can be added to the menu of patients with diabetes mellitus, since the carbohydrates it contains consist mainly of fructose. It must be remembered that coarse fibers in the composition of the root vegetable can cause inflammation of the gastric mucosa.
Known varieties and species
There are two types of rutabaga - fodder and table. Table rutabaga has become widespread in folk medicine, cooking, and cosmetics. The following crop varieties are grown more often.
Table: characteristics of popular varieties of rutabaga
These varieties are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements and can be grown in all regions of Russia.
Photo gallery: varieties of rutabagas
Of the foreign varieties, they are resistant to diseases, give a good harvest, and have excellent taste:
The fodder vegetable is a hybrid obtained by crossing the table type of swede and fodder cabbage. This species is less demanding on growing conditions and more productive. Retains nutritional value for a long time. It became widespread in cold regions for feeding livestock in the winter. Rutabaga varieties for cultivation:
Fodder rutabaga obtained by crossing table rutabagas and fodder cabbage
We create good conditions for the vegetable to grow
Since the vegetable can adapt to cold weather, it can be cultivated even in northern regions. Plants in adulthood can withstand temperatures down to -6 ° C, young root crops - at least -4 ° C. Seed growth begins at a temperature of 2 ° C. The optimum temperature accompanying the growth and development of a vegetable is in the range from 16 to 20 ° C.
Good lighting is needed for high yields. The culture loves moist soil. It is better to grow rutabagus on fertile, light, neutral soils with high moisture and air permeability, consisting mainly of clay and sand (loamy). Cultivated peatlands are also suitable. Swampy, clayey or rocky soils are not suitable for plant cultivation.
It is better to grow rutabagas on fertile, light, neutral soils with high moisture and air permeability
Methods for growing rutabagas
Rutabaga is grown in two ways:
Growing rutabagas in the open field in a seedling way reduces the ripening time of the vegetable. This is important for cold regions. Sowing seeds for seedlings begins in mid-April.
- First, the seeds for disinfection are placed in a garlic solution for 1 hour. For its preparation, take chopped garlic (25 g) and pour 100 ml of water. Then the seeds are taken out of the solution, washed, dried, placed in a damp cotton cloth for germination.
- When sprouts appear, the seeds are planted, deepening by 1‒1.5 cm into the soil, which is in special boxes for seedlings.
- Containers with landings are closed on top with cellophane or glass.
- The temperature in such a greenhouse should be maintained within the range of 17 - 18 ° C until the formation of the first shoots. After that, the shelter is removed, the box is placed in a cold place with a temperature of 6-8 ° C.
- After a week, the temperature is increased to 12-15 ° C.
- Care of the seedlings, while they are in the boxes, consists in watering them, loosening, thinning, in which they leave stronger shoots.
Growing rutabagas in seedlings reduces the ripening time of root crops
Seedlings of swede are planted in open ground on the 40th day. At this time, the plant should have at least 4 leaves. Before planting in an outdoor environment, the seedlings are hardened for 10 days to 2 weeks, for which they are placed in fresh air, starting at one hour, gradually increasing the time.
For planting in the ground, prepare holes by digging them 20 cm apart. The pits are watered, and the roots of the seedlings are moistened with a clay mash, which is a creamy mixture of clay, water and mullein. When planting plants in the soil, you need to make sure that the neck of the root remains above the ground, compact the shoots, and then water them.
When planting plants in the soil, you need to make sure that the root neck remains above the ground.
Sowing preparations begin in the autumn. To do this, take the following steps:
- The plot is freed from the previous harvest, weeds and other vegetation, then green manure is sown (clover, phacelia, lupine) - green fertilizers that fight weeds and improve the structure of the soil.
- When the green manure grows up, they are mowed with a flat cutter and mulch the ground with them, leaving it on the ridge.
- With the onset of spring, when the snow melts, rotted green manures are harrowed with a rake into the depths of the earth by 30-50 mm.
- When the soil warms up and does not stick to the tool, weeds will begin to appear, they are again passed through the bed with a flat cutter. Weeds are removed, and the earth is spilled with Baikal EM-1.
After a week, turnip seeds can be sown on such a site. Sowing time is determined by weather conditions. Take into account the manifestation of the activity of the cruciferous flea, which can harm the seedlings. Therefore, rutabagas are sown when it is cool, at an air temperature not higher than 15‒18 ° C. In warm regions, this occurs at the end of May, in cold regions - at the end of June.
Swede seeds can be sown directly into open ground
Landing is carried out as follows:
- The seeds are being prepared for planting. To prevent possible infections, they are placed in water (temperature about 50 ° C) for half an hour. The seeds are then removed and dried on a dry cloth.
- The seeds, due to their small size, are mixed with dry (calcined) river sand.
- Before planting, grooves about 2 cm deep are marked in the ground at a distance of 0.5 m from each other.
- Seeds are laid out in them at the rate of 20 pieces per 1 running meter, then they do not have to be thinned out.
- From above they are covered with earth and watered using warm water.
- On top of the ground, crops can be mulched with peat. It will retain moisture.
- At the stage of the appearance of two leaves, the plants are transplanted (if necessary) so that the distance between the shoots is from 20 to 25 cm. Each plant is transplanted together with a clod of earth in which the root is located.
Planting a plant can be done in two steps. If the seeds are sown in early spring, the culture will ripen in the summer, it should be used immediately. Routine sowing in the summer will yield crops in the fall. It is suitable for storage.
How to care for a turnip
After planting, the plant will need some care.
Dry soil causes the roots to become bitter and rough. Excessive moisture makes them tasteless and watery. During the growing season, the vegetable is watered about 5 times per season. When watering, the required water consumption is 10 l / 1 m2. When the roots of the plant are exposed during watering, they need to be sprinkled with earth. 1-2 days after watering, the soil is loosened. At this time, you also need to spud the rutabagas, mulch to retain moisture in the ground.
After watering, the rutabagas are spud
After 2 weeks from the moment of planting the plant in the ground, it is fed with liquid manure. When a root crop is formed, mineral fertilizers are applied to the ground (30 g / 1 m2)... Fertilizing with fertilizers containing:
An insufficient amount of boron makes the vegetable darker, it loses its taste, and is stored less. Due to the phosphorus, the swede becomes sweet.
For the entire growing season, 2-3 fertilizing with minerals and organic matter is carried out. When two months later, the leaves of the plant from below die off, this is normal. The only thing that is required is to remove them from the vegetable and the garden, otherwise their rotting in the ground will attract pests: cabbage fly, aphids, slugs, other insects and cause plant disease.
Features of agricultural technology in different climates
In our country, rutabagas were originally grown to obtain oil from the seeds of a plant, later they began to grow it as a vegetable. As a food and forage plant, it is widespread in the regions of Transbaikalia, Sakhalin, the Urals, in the North and North-West of Russia, the western part of Ukraine, and other countries of the near and far abroad. Good crops are harvested there, it is stored for a long time. Since the rutabaga is resistant to cold weather, loves moisture and ripens quickly, it is cultivated in all regions with a temperate climate. The composition of the selected soil contributes to successful cultivation. It should not only be light and quite nutritious, but also have a neutral reaction (pH 5.5 to 7).
When the land on the site is heavy, consists of clay, you need to add sand, humus, peat to it. The acidity of the soil is reduced with lime.
The culture is not planted on the ridges, where previously related vegetables grew: cabbage, turnip, radish, horseradish, daikon. It is believed that the best precursors are potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkin, and legumes.
Rutabaga produces a good harvest in temperate regions
Diseases and pests: protection and prevention
Like other plants, rutabagas can be susceptible to various diseases. To effectively combat them, you need to know what the signs of the disease are.
The disease is caused by low temperature, high humidity, frost, high nitrogen content. From this disease, the base of the tops of the plant first suffers, then the root crop. The foliage turns yellow, dies, becomes slippery, the smell of rot comes from it.
Prevention and control measures:
- to reduce the development of the disease, a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid is used;
- disinfection of greenhouses and soil helps prevent bacteriosis;
- seed material before planting is placed in a solution of garlic or hot water;
- diseased plants are destroyed;
- a preventive measure is also watering with potassium permanganate during the period of plant development and shedding them with ash.
Rutabaga also suffers from this disease, characteristic of cabbage. Bulges and growths appear on the root crop. The appearance of a keel can be triggered by excessive moisture, weeds. Disease can be prevented by watering the ground with lime mortar. It is prepared by mixing 2 tbsp. lime and 10 liters of water. At least 1 liter of solution is poured under each root. Watering is repeated a few days later with an infusion consisting of 400 g of horseradish leaves (roots), filled with 10 liters of water. This mixture is infused for 4 hours.
This disease spreads in low ambient temperatures, frequent rains and high humidity. The disease comes from the lower part of the seedling (root collar) and manifests itself in yellowing, twisting of leaves, blackening of the base of the plant stem. To avoid such problems, you need to water the plant sparingly. For prevention purposes, one should not forget about the disinfection of seeds before sowing and further periodic disinfection of the soil. Before storing vegetables, you need to dry them well.
When diseased plants appear, they are removed and burned.To reduce the degree of the disease, the earth is pollinated with ash (1 tbsp) mixed with copper sulfate (1 tsp). For cultivating the land and tops, you can still prepare a solution of 1 tbsp. copper sulfate (copper oxychloride), 1 tbsp. household soap and 10 liters of water.
Phomosis is determined by the yellow spots formed on the leaves, which have black dots in the center. The disease spreads to the inside of the root crop and leads to its decay. Prevention against the disease is carried out with 80% (75%) polycarbocin at a consumption of 0.5 g of the drug per 100 g of seed.
Since the soil with a lack of boron is susceptible to phomosis, fertilizing with this component is used: 3 g of borax is needed per 1 m2.
The culture is often exposed to the invasion of insects. Among the main pests are:
- cabbage fly;
- fire flame;
- cruciferous flea beetle.
You can protect root crops by sprinkling the aisles with red pepper, mustard, wood ash, tobacco dust. Of insecticides, Fitoverm, Lepidocide are used.
Photo gallery: diseases and pests of swede
Harvesting and storage
Rutabaga ripens in September. Autumn frosts are not terrible for the plant, it can be in the ground at temperatures down to -8 ° C. But they try to harvest in the fall before the onset of cold weather. The vegetables are dug up, the tops are cut off. Root vegetables are put to dry. To do this, they are freed from the ground, sorted, selecting good intact vegetables.
In the presence of lateral processes on the root vegetable, its pulp will be tasteless and tough.
After drying, the vegetables are placed in a cool place with temperatures up to 4–5 ° C: cellar or basement. It must be dry there, otherwise the vegetables will become damp and rot. If the fruits are placed in rows in boxes with river sand, then they can lie for a long time.
In southern regions with mild winters, root crops are dug out of the ground as needed, without fear of freezing.
Video: harvesting swede
It is worth paying attention to rutabagas - a healthy vegetable that has recently been forgotten. But the valuable properties of the culture make it possible to use it for medicinal and cosmetic purposes, in dietology and cooking. This encourages people to take an interest in the plant again and start growing it in their garden plots. Caring for the turnip does not apply to time-consuming processes and is within the power of all vegetable growers.
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Rutabaga is a plant with a spherical root crop, which gives a high yield on sandy loam and loamy soils. It is one of the main table root crops in Sweden, Germany, Finland.
What does the plant and fruits look like?
In the first year of cultivation, rutabaga is a root crop with a rosette of leaves. In the second year, flowering shoots and seeds develop.
Root crops are round, cylindrical or oval, depending on the variety. The pulp is yellow with various shades or white. The color of the peel protruding above the soil surface of the part is gray-green or purple. The underground part is colored yellow.
The stem is high, straight. The lower leaves are lyre-shaped, incised. Leaves on the stem are whole, sessile.
The structure of the inflorescence has the shape of a brush with small golden-yellow flowers, characteristic of crucifers.
In the second year of growth, dark brown spherical seeds with a diameter of about 1.8 mm, enclosed in a multi-seeded pod 5-10 cm long, ripen in rutabagas.
Biological characteristics are given in the table.
|Relation to air temperature||The plant is cold-resistant, the seeds germinate at + 1 ... + 3 ° C, the sprouts can withstand a short-term temperature drop down to - 4 ° C. The best quality root crops grow at + 15… + 18 ° C. Resistant to prolonged heat, but roots become tough.|
|Relation to moisture||Moisture-loving plant. With a lack of water, the roots are bitter, and premature flowering begins.|
|Attitude to light||When planting in the ground, shaded areas should be avoided.|
Homeland and history of vegetable culture
According to some scientists, rutabaga is native to the Mediterranean, where it was obtained by natural or deliberate crossing of cabbage and turnip.
However, there are no facts in written sources before the beginning of the 17th century. It wasn't until 1620 that the Swiss botanist Kaspar Baugin described a plant similar to rutabaga found in the wild flora of Sweden.
According to another theory, rutabagas were first cultivated in Siberia, from where they came to the countries of Northern Europe. This opinion is supported by a variety of names for rutabagas in the regions of Russia: rutabaga, bruchka, groin, earthworm and others.
Rutabaga - uses, benefits and harms
Rutabaga is a root vegetable obtained by crossing collard greens and turnips. It is a biennial plant with an edible (or fodder) thickened root, high in vitamin C, mineral salts and sugars.
In ancient times, rutabaga was considered a medicinal plant. It was added to baths and the sick were bathed, and women made wraps. The first printed mention of a vegetable dates back to 1620. It is grown in Canada, France, England, Ireland, North America, Argentina, India and Japan. In Europe, it has been cultivated and consumed since the 17th century, during the First and Second World War it was a delicious and valuable vegetable that saved lives from hunger. Thanks to her, many managed to survive the cold winters.
Rutabagas are often confused with turnips. What is the difference between vegetables? Rutabaga has yellow flesh, while turnips are white and form smaller roots.
Rutabaga is characterized by high biological viability and high assimilation of valuable nutrients.
- B vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, B12)
- vitamins C, A and K
- minerals: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, zinc, copper, sulfur, iron
- a lot of fiber
- beta carotene
- useful fatty acids.
In folk medicine, the vegetable has been valued for a long time. The following beneficial properties of swede are known:
- Diuretic property.
- The vegetable is rich in potassium and vitamin C, which makes it an ideal product for fall and winter, when it is especially worth strengthening the immune system.
- Ideal for people who have intestinal and stomach problems, counteracts constipation due to its high fiber content.
- Promotes the improvement of digestive processes.
- Expectorant action.
- Rutabaga juice has a healing effect - it cleanses and strengthens the body.
- Due to the sulfur compounds contained in the juice, it is recommended for people struggling with skin problems, hair loss.
- A very rich, but low-calorie vegetable (36 kcal per 100 g), therefore it is recommended for people on a weight loss diet.
- The vegetable contains glucosinolate antioxidants. These are chemical compounds that contain sulfur, are involved in the synthesis of enzymes that remove toxins from the body, thereby improving the elimination of carcinogens.
- The root vegetable contains carotenoids and ascorbic acid. These are chemical compounds belonging to the group of antioxidants that are excellent at fighting free radicals, thus counteracting the mutations of healthy cells and promoting tissue regeneration.
- Rutabaga juice is an excellent cosmetic product. The sulfur content helps to tone the skin, the juice has anti-inflammatory properties. It can be used as a face wash for acne.
Young rutabagas are tasty and healthy, while old ones cause bloating.
Despite its beneficial properties, this is not a vegetable that can be eaten often and in large quantities. It should be used with caution for a number of reasons.
- Frequent consumption of swede can lead to hypothyroidism. In the process of digestion, substances are released from it that suppress the transport of iodine in the thyroid gland. In large doses, they compete with iodine in the process of its incorporation into organic compounds. Therefore, people with hypothyroidism should greatly reduce the amount of this vegetable in their diet.
- Dishes from rutabagas are not recommended for diabetics, or in small quantities due to the high sugar content.
- It is also not recommended for people with delicate stomachs. Not recommended for inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, manifested by diarrhea. It cannot be eaten in case of acute diseases of the stomach and intestines.
What to cook with rutabagas?
For many years, rutabaga has been an extremely rare guest on our tables. Many do not know how to use it in the kitchen. There are many ways to prepare it, it all depends on culinary preferences and fantasies. Many people refer to the taste of raw swede as kohlrabi - the taste of childhood.
You can prepare rutabagas in different ways:
- raw salad
In the hungry post-war years, rutabagas were baked and eaten instead of bread. Rutabaga soup was popular. The vegetable can be baked in the oven. In Finland, it is eaten baked as an addition to meat dishes. Grated together with boiled carrots and potatoes, with the addition of butter and cream or milk, it is an addition to many festive dishes in Norway. The vegetable can be grated and added to vegetable pies instead of potatoes.
The vegetable was widely used in Scandinavia, where it was added to meat dishes, soups and preserves. Many adults and children like to eat raw rutabagas.
It is also used as a flavor enhancer in soups. Below is a recipe for a very quick and warming winter Swedish soup.
Swedish winter rutabaga puree soup
- 1 large rutabaga or 2 small
- 1 onion
- 6 cardamom pods
- 1 l of broth
- 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
- thyme, pepper.
Peel and cut the rutabagas into thick cubes, cut the onions into slices. Open the cardamom pods and pour the beans into a small bowl. Heat oil in a frying pan, sauté the onions. Boil the broth in a saucepan, add the frying. Cover and simmer over very low heat for 40-50 minutes, until the rutabaga is golden brown. Season with a little pepper, thyme (fresh or dried). After cooling, pour into a blender and stir. The soup is served hot with croutons, sprinkled with herbs and seeds.
Rutabaga soup with pearl barley
- 1 medium rutabaga
- 1 carrot
- a glass of pearl barley
- 2 liters of water
- smoked bacon (about 10 grams)
- salt and pepper to taste.
Place the bacon in a pot of hot water. Add pearl barley and cook. When the groats are tender, add the chopped rutabaga and carrot pieces. Cook until vegetables are soft (50 minutes). Season with salt and pepper. Soup is served with fried pieces of bacon (cracklings).
Rutabaga stewed with sour cream
The root vegetable is peeled and cut into small pieces. Onion, diced and rutabagas are fried in a frying pan, broth is added and stewed until tender. At the end, add homemade sour cream, season with salt and pepper, stew for another 10 minutes. The dish is incredibly simple and delicious.
Rutabaga baked with parmesan cheese
- 1 kg rutabaga
- 50 g grated parmesan
- 2 sprigs of rosemary
- 2-3 tablespoons of vegetable oil
Cut the rutabaga into cubes, like French fries. Chop the rosemary. Mix everything with butter and cheese. Put everything on a baking sheet lined with parchment and sprinkle with grated cheese. We bake at a temperature of 200 degrees C for 30-40 minutes, until the vegetable is browned.
- 300 g rutabaga
- 2 apples
- 2 tablespoons grated horseradish
- 1 glass of cream or mayonnaise
- chopped greens
- salt and sugar to taste.
Mix the grated rutabaga with horseradish, grated apples and herbs, mix with cream or mayonnaise, season to taste with sugar and salt.
Useful properties and indications for use in traditional medicine
- strengthening bone tissue and preventing its softening with calcium
- eliminating stool problems
- diuretic effect - excess fluid is removed from the body, edema is prevented and eliminated, the work of the urinary system is normalized
- elimination of bacteria and elimination of inflammation, which helps in the treatment of skin diseases, as well as burns
- stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract, normalization of digestion and metabolism
- strengthening arteries, veins and capillaries, heart muscles - restoring normal blood pressure and lowering cholesterol and sugar levels in the bloodstream
- strengthening the immune system.
This plant was used to treat childhood measles. It is also used for burns, wounds, inflammations and is an analogue of diuretic medicines. It is recommended for constipation. it contains a large amount of fiber. The vegetable removes cholesterol plaques on blood vessels and strengthens their walls, therefore it is used for atherosclerosis.
The root vegetable is effective in combating dry coughs as it dilutes phlegm. It is used to combat colds in general. it has an immunomodulatory effect. Its use is also useful for acute respiratory infections, bronchitis, diseases of the respiratory system or whooping cough.
The agricultural technology of the swede is simple. But in order to get a high-quality harvest, you should heed the advice of experienced gardeners.
- After removing the film or glass from the container in which the seedlings grow, it is not watered for 3 days.
- Seedlings are watered by spraying - 1-2 times a week.
An experienced gardener will tell you how to grow rutabagas in the following video:
The cultivation of rutabagas is not associated with any difficulties. Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology, timely watering and fertilization is the key to a high-quality harvest.