Arugula is a type of early maturing and cold-resistant spicy greens native to the Mediterranean. This unpretentious plant with an original nut-mustard taste is easy to grow in the garden and even on the windowsill.
Arugula - spicy greens from the Mediterranean
Arugula came to us from Italy along with the fashion for delicious and healthy Mediterranean cuisine. It is a small cruciferous plant that has a very pleasant mustard-nutty leaf flavor and is used as a salad green.
For the first time I tried arugula with my friends in Italy, where this plant, along with basil, is considered the most important vegetable garden after numerous varieties of leaf and head salads.
Arugula is harvested at the stage of the rosette of leaves, before the formation of peduncles
Varieties and varieties of arugula
Arugula are two related plants, which can be accurately distinguished from each other only during the flowering period. They are practically the same in taste and cultivation technology. Arugula varieties differ mainly in the shape of leaves and early maturity, the difference in taste is very insignificant and depends more on weather conditions and care than on the variety, as well as the yield of greens per square meter, which can vary from 1.0 to 2, 5 kg depending on growing conditions.
Arugula varieties differ in the shape of the leaves.
Popular varieties of arugula - table
|Variety name||Type of arugula||Ripening period||Days from germination to harvest||Leaves|
|Rococo||Lobed like oak|
|Olivette||Arugula wild||Early||20–25||Severely dissected|
Arugula, or eruka, indau, caterpillar, rocket salad
- Leaves with wide rounded lobules, similar to oak leaves.
Eruka leaves look like oak leaves
- The flowers are white.
Eruka blooms with white flowers
- The seeds are almost round.
Eruka seeds are almost round in shape
Arugula wild, or two-rowed fine-leaved
- Leaves are strongly dissected, with long narrow lobules.
The two-rowed has strongly dissected leaves with narrow lobules.
- The flowers are yellow.
The two-rowed blooms with yellow flowers
- Seeds are oval.
The two-rowed has oval-shaped seeds
It is necessary to distinguish cultivars of wild arugula from that growing like a weed in the southern regions of its wild ancestor with smaller and bitter leaves.
The difference between cultivated and weedy wild arugula - video
How to grow arugula
Arugula is an unpretentious plant, it can be grown by any novice gardener.
Growing arugula outdoors
A bright area with light fertile soil of neutral or very slightly acidic reaction (pH 6.0-7.0) is chosen for arugula. Too acidic soils are limed in advance, 1–2 years before sowing. It grows better on sandy soils than on heavy clay. You can not sow arugula after cabbage, radish, turnip and other cruciferous crops - they all have common diseases. Arugula grows well after pumpkin, legumes, nightshade plants. It can withstand openwork partial shade from trees, especially in hot southern regions, where light shading is even good for it.
Sowing dates for arugula
Arugula is a cold-resistant plant, its seedlings can withstand short-term frosts down to -4 ° С. You can sow it from early spring, immediately after the snow melts, and until mid-autumn. Wild arugula can be sown before winter, it hibernates well under the snow, if excess moisture does not stagnate on the site in spring.
To have fresh greens all season, sowing is repeated every 2 weeks, except during the strongest summer heat.
Arugula does not tolerate heat well, the optimum temperature for it is +16 .. + 18 ° С. In hot, dry weather, plants bloom prematurely, and their leaves become coarse and acquire a bitter taste. Therefore, sowing in July is justified only in northern regions with cool summers.
In the garden of my Italian friends, the April arugula was great, but the May one was no longer successful: under the scorching southern sun on cement-like clay, the plants formed flower stalks prematurely and were bitter, despite daily watering.
Arugula seeds germinate well and do not need any special preparation. They are sown to a depth of 0.5-1 cm.
Arugula sowing scheme:
- 15 cm between rows,
- 2-3 cm between seeds in a row.
Seedlings appear 3-5 days after sowing and grow very quickly. It is necessary to thin out the crops 1-2 times, so that in the end there is a distance of about 15 cm between the plants. The first thinning is done immediately after germination, if the crop is too thick and the plants have grown close to each other.
If the arugula has sprouted too thickly, the crops are thinned out
The last thinning is carried out when the leaves grow up to 3-5 cm in length. The extra copies collected at the same time can already be used for food. The final harvest is carried out when the leaves grow to 10-15 cm in length.
For arugula plants to grow lush, there must be an interval of about 15 cm between them.
You have to water arugula every day in hot weather. The soil underneath should be moist at all times. From a lack of moisture, plants prematurely switch to the formation of flowering stems, which significantly reduces the quantity and quality of the leaves harvest.
Arugula should not be specially fed so that the plants do not accumulate harmful nitrates. Fertilizers are applied under the previous crop. Arugula develops especially magnificently after cucumbers or zucchini abundantly fertilized with manure.
Like all cabbage crops, arugula seedlings can be strongly affected by small bugs - cruciferous flea beetles. Sometimes arugula also suffers from slugs. Due to the very short period of its cultivation, no pesticides can be used, you have to do with folk remedies. Dusting plants with wood ash, tobacco dust or pyrethrum powder on leaves wet from dew or watering helps well from pests.
Growing arugula in a greenhouse
Arugula is a cold-resistant plant and does well without shelter. But the use of plastic wrap or agrofibre allows you to get a valuable crop of vitamin greens in early spring and late autumn. Under the shelter, arugula is sown in the same way as in open ground. On warm days, the film must be lifted for airing so that the plants do not overheat. The rest of the care is the same as in an open garden.
An additional plus of using shelters: they significantly reduce the number of cruciferous flea beetles on crops.
In winter heated greenhouses, arugula can be grown using the same technology as in indoor conditions.
Growing arugula on the balcony and in the room on the windowsill
Arugula is a very compact plant. In summer, it can be grown in pots or boxes on the balcony, and in a room on a windowsill all year round.
Seeds are sown in pots with moistened non-acidic soil to a depth of 0.5–1 cm. 3-4 seeds are placed in a 150–200 ml glass to leave 1 strongest plant after thinning.
In pots and cups, arugula are sown 3-4 seeds in each
3-5 days after sowing, when shoots appear, indoor arugula should be placed on a light, cool windowsill. The soil should be moist all the time; in a warm room, daily watering is needed. When the leaves grow up to 3-5 cm in length, the excess specimens must be carefully cut to the very root - this thinning gives the very first harvest. The remaining plants in the open space form powerful rosettes of leaves, which can be cut as needed, but without waiting for flowering.
When watered well, arugula in pots produces lush greenery.
Arugula is a tasty and healthy spicy herb that is easy to grow even in northern regions with short, cool summers. You can get a vitamin harvest of this wonderful herb and on the balcony or in the room on the windowsill.
What kind of cabbage for salting: with a description, characteristics and reviews, including for growing in Siberia
Late varieties of cabbage have excellent keeping quality and do not crack for a long time, have an excellent presentation, are ideal for transportation and long-term storage. In winter, the white pot becomes almost a key source of valuable trace elements, vitamins and fiber, because purchased tomatoes and cucumbers do not have such nutritional value.
How to choose a variety
The best option is late-ripening cabbage varieties, characterized by the following features:
- Increased resistance to harsh environmental conditions (frost and temperature extremes).
- Excellent yield.
- Resistant to common diseases and pests.
- The density and large size of the heads of cabbage (the weight of one can be 6-7 kg).
- Good keeping quality and subsequently improving taste.
The best varieties
Below are the most popular late varieties of white cabbage for storage among Russian gardeners:
- "Slav" - has a growing season of 102-130 days. It is famous for its excellent yield - from 5.9 to 7.5 kg per 1 m 2. Heads of cabbage are dense, ranging in size from 29 to 39 cm and a diameter of 56-72 cm. The leaves are medium-sized, their width is from 27 to 38 cm. The leaf rosette is vertical. It has a dark green color (milky in the section) and a strong waxy coating, slightly wavy, incised edges. Well grown in loamy and clayey soils. Differs in that it normally tolerates drought. Suitable for storage due to its excellent keeping quality. Resistant to infection and bacteriosis. Usually fermented or consumed fresh.
- "Moscow" - late variety of cabbage for long-term storage. It was bred back in 1937. The vegetation period is from 134 to 149 days. Heads of cabbage are dense, round and flatish in shape, the weight of one is 6.5 kg (sometimes it reaches 12 kg). Large leaves of gray-green color with a slightly wavy edge. The cut has a yellow-cream color. Suitable for fermentation and preforms. The only drawback is the tendency to cracking and dependence on soil fertility.
- "Aggressor F1" - mid-late hybrid, from the formation of early shoots to technical ripeness takes 129-151 days. It features a powerful rosette, medium-sized leaves with a slightly corrugated edge. It was bred by Dutch breeders and recommended for cultivation in the central lane. The weight of spherical heads of cabbage is 2.5-3 kg. On the cut, it has a white color and a medium-sized stump (up to 16 cm). The advantages of "Aggressor F1" are the stability of fruiting, adaptability to different weather conditions and a low percentage of rejects. Shows resistance to fusarium wilting, black leg, thrips, has developed immunity to a variety of infections, including phytophthora. It is versatile and can be used for pickles, marinades and hot dishes.
- "Prestige F1" - late-ripening variety of cabbage for long-term storage. The growing season ranges from 119 to 131 days. Differs in bubbly leaves of a greenish tint with a pronounced bloom of wax. The yield is 7.5-10 kg per 1 m 2. Heads of cabbage of increased density do not crack during drought and irregular watering. It is recommended to eat the vegetable fresh.
- "Snow White" - universal, the growing season is from 125 to 149 days. Weighs 3.5 to 5 kg and can be stored cool for six months to 8 months. The leaves are large, 80 to 150 cm in diameter, pale green, lyre-shaped and smooth. The plugs are tight, the socket is medium. Snow White is frost-resistant, able to withstand temperature extremes. Productivity from 4.5 to 7.4 kg per 1 m². Provided that mineral fertilizers are applied, up to 9.5 kg can be collected from 1 m².
- "Valentina F1" - hybrid, entered in the register of the State Variety Commission at the beginning of 2000. It was recognized as one of the best varieties of cabbage for long-term storage. From the appearance of the first shoots to harvest, an average of 135-177 days pass. Differs in good seed germination and high productivity. Leaves are green. Heads of cabbage have a mass of 3 to 3.5 kg, stumps of medium size. From 1 hectare, agronomists collect from 645 to 790 centners. "Valentina F1" has become famous for its resistance to crackling and many diseases, incl. fusarium wilting. But it is demanding on the temperature regime: with a cold snap (below + 15 ° C), the likelihood of growth stagnation increases. Differs in excellent keeping quality and amazing taste. Suitable for long distance transportation. - lying winter hybrid cabbage. Weight - 3.5-7.2 kg. Resistant to light frosts, sudden temperature fluctuations and diseases, incl. fusarium wilting, not subject to gray rot. The socket is obovate. Suitable for pickling and pickling. Stored for approximately 6.5 months. The yield is 6.2-7.5 kg per 1 m 2.
- "Aros F1" - Czech hybrid of late ripening with a vegetation period of 175-180 days. Differs in excellent keeping quality. The yield varies from 2.6 to 5 kg per 1 m 2. The color of the leaves is gray-green with a waxy bloom, and yellowish on the cut. The diameter of the rosette of leaves is 25 cm, the size of the outer stump is 14-17 cm. The edge of the leaf plate is slightly incised. Heads of cabbage weigh from 1.4 to 2.1 kg. It has a wonderful taste: it is recommended to use it fresh. A thickened planting is required to improve yields.
- "Amager 611" Is another of the best late kale varieties for storage. Ripening period - 116-149 days. It has a semi-spreading rosette with protruding smooth green leaves 35-45 cm long and 35 cm wide. The leaf rosette is quite dense and round-flat: its weight ranges from 2.4 to 4.5 kg. High-yielding - from 35 to 65 tons can be harvested from 1 hectare. The only drawback is weak immunity. Often suffers from vascular bacteriosis, fusarium, rot and necrosis. Suitable for transportation. Has a good keeping quality.
- "Kolobok" - Russian hybrid with a growing season of 114 to 121 days, suitable for cultivation in any region. The yield is excellent - from 1 m 2 it is possible to collect up to 10-15 kg. The rosette is raised, height - 34 cm, diameter - up to 50 cm. Heads of cabbage of increased density weigh up to 9 kg, have a sweetish taste without bitterness. A versatile look that is used to eating fresh and pickled. Resistant to fusarium, all types of bacteriosis, does not lend itself to point necrosis. Suitable for transportation.
- "Lezhky F1" - hybrid variety of late cabbage intended for long-term storage. The heads of cabbage remain juicy and ripe even 7 months after harvest. The ripening period is 146-163 days. The size of the leaf rosette is from 2 to 2.6 cm. Its diameter is from 50 to 75 cm, and the height is up to 45 cm. The leaves are gray-green in color with a pronounced bloom. Does not taste bitter, therefore it is suitable for first and second courses. From 1 m
The ideal soil is slightly acidic, well-fertilized loamy soils with a neutral pH level. Humus is applied in the fall, and complex fertilizers are used in the spring.
The best predecessors are:
It is grown by the seedling method. The planting scheme is 60x70 cm. The seedlings are planted in a permanent place after 30-35 days. The seed is processed and disinfected.Seedlings are pre-planted in separate containers or peat pots, taking into account the 2-centimeter distance between them. After sowing, the containers should be covered with foil and placed in a warm room until the seeds germinate. Then the pots are placed on the windowsill, and the temperature is gradually reduced to + 12-14 ° C. For this culture, you need to provide a minimum of 12 hours of daylight. If necessary, you can use an LED lamp. After transplanting to the garden, you will need to make 3 dressings:
- 2 weeks after the formation of 4 leaves.
- When the outlet appears.
- At the initial stage of head formation.
The most effective chemical fertilizers are Terraflex Final, Terraflex and Rexolin ABS. Cabbage requires reasonable watering, removing weeds, and loosening the soil.
The optimal conditions for long-term storage of cabbage are:
- Temperature range from -1 to + 2 ° C.
- Relative humidity at 85-95%.
This vegetable can be stored in the cellar, refrigerator, garage and balcony. To preserve the presentation and useful properties for a long time, you need to choose the right container:
- Cling film - wrap each leaf socket in 2-3 layers so that the film fits snugly to the surface of the vegetable.
- Box - prepare plastic and wooden containers without a top and with holes between the boards, or wooden pallets. The top of the boxes can be sprinkled with sand for a better effect.
Heads of cabbage can also be wrapped by stumps and hung with ropes on beams.
You need to harvest vegetables when the temperature is + 3-8 ° C during the day and 0-3 ° C at night. Harvesting is done only in dry weather. Heads of cabbage should be thoroughly dried in a warm ventilated area.
Botanical description of Antirrinum
Snapdragon is a perennial plant that many gardeners have gotten used to growing as an annual. Its pagons are usually straight, with many branches, 20-100 cm high. The leaves that cover the stems have an oval or oblong shape.
Collected flowers in long spikelets
The buds are large, with a pleasant smell. They are simple and terry. Flowers are collected in long spikelets. The color of the flower is white, yellow, scarlet, pink. There can also be two-color and even three-color varieties. Flowering lasts from June until the first severe frosts. The seeds of this plant are incredibly small - 7000 seeds weigh only 1 g!
Vegetable fennel: growing it from seed
Fennel seeds do not deteriorate and do not lose their germination when stored for 3 years. In order for them to germinate faster, it is necessary to properly prepare them. Seeds should be placed on a small piece of fabric, wrapped and dipped in a growth stimulant solution so that the fabric is well wet. In this state, fennel seeds are kept for about 4 hours.
Sowing in open ground
Gardeners sow seeds in different ways. Some plant fennel seeds in the spring. The main advantage of this period of planting in the beds (in April) is that the plant does not require any additional care. Some summer residents prefer to plant crops in the fall - at the very beginning of September. With this approach, the bush needs to be insulated for the winter.
When sowing in any period of the year, fennel seeds are immersed in the soil only 2 or 3 cm. The bed is prepared in advance. Lime is added to the soil, as well as a bucket of humus. This amount will be required for each square meter of the site. Also add 2 buckets of sawdust and mineral compounds to the soil.
Gaps of 0.6 m are left between the rows. At a temperature of about +7 0 C, after a week, fennel seeds sprout. At this time, they are thinned out. There must be a distance of at least 20 cm between the copies.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
To obtain seedlings, sowing seeds is carried out in boxes filled with nutritious soil. The procedure is carried out from February to March. When the first shoots break out of the ground, the seedlings are transplanted and dived into individual containers. You can continue growing in boxes, but keeping a distance of 20 cm between specimens. After 4 weeks, the plants can be planted in open beds.
With the help of seedlings, it is preferable to grow vegetable varieties of a spicy crop.
Caring for decorative indoor peppers at home
With the onset of cold weather, we begin to miss the rich colors of nature and the rustling of foliage in the wind. Some gardeners in this case grow decorative peppers at home. A green hat dotted with multi-colored fruits on the windowsill contrasts with the winter landscape, raising your spirits great.
Capsicum is the botanical name for pepper. It is also called Vegetable Pepper or Capsicum. These are unpretentious, annual and perennial shrubs and shrubs of the Solanaceae family. He comes from the subtropics of Central America.
Capsicum or decorative pepper
Capsicum should not be confused with black pepper, a plant of the Pepper genus belonging to the Pepper family.
Capsicum is grown all over the world as an ornamental or vegetable crop. Varieties are divided into sweet and bitter varieties. The latter contain an increased amount of the alkaloid capsacin. The Aztecs used this substance as a chemical weapon. It gives the pepper a hot taste. Most of the capsacin is found in fruits, especially cayenne pepper.
It is customary to call decorative compact, branched varieties with a height of 20-40 cm, with dense foliage and an abundance of fruits. They are grown indoors, in pots. In the summer, it is not a sin to take it out to the balcony or in the garden, or plant it in the open ground. Before the onset of cold weather, the pepper can be transplanted back into the pot.
Ornamental pepper is loved by many for its original appearance and ease of cultivation.
The fruit of Capsicum is a false berry, a hollow seed capsule, often eaten or used as a spice. The word box in Latin means capsa, hence the Latin name of the plant - Capsicum.
Fruit shape, color, size and position on the plant may vary from variety to variety. Some ornamental varieties may not be edible.
The tops, greens, roots of the plant are toxic, like all nightshades.
Many varieties have been bred, the most popular of which are:
The classic of peppers. Serves as the main component for the famous sauce. The fruits are about 5 cm long, they are collected in bunches and stick up. Their color ranges from orange to red.
A wild variety with particularly pungent red fruits, rounded, about the size of a bean. Used by cowboys as a stimulant. Hence the slang name Cowboy berry.
Abundantly fruiting, spreading shrub 30-40 cm high with variegated leaves. When ripe, the fruits change their color from green to purple and red.
Unusual variety. As you grow older the plant changes its color from green to almost black. The fruits are also black, spherical, small in size, redden as they ripen.
Lovely pepper, dotted with elongated, moderately pungent fruits. They stick up, like the tentacles of a jellyfish.
Shrub pepper Salute
The smallest shrub variety. Great for indoor growing at home. The bush reaches a height of 15-20 cm. The peppers are orange.
Pepper ornamental Goldfinger
Inedible pepper, grown to decorate interiors. The fruits are yellow.
There are general planting rules for peppers. It propagates by seeds, which are taken from ripe fruits. They can be sown at any time of the year.
The seeds are pre-soaked in water for several hours. For germination, you can use a damp cloth or gauze. With the appearance of roots, the seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of 0.5-1 cm.
Also, seeds can be planted immediately after soaking.
Sprouted Ornamental Pepper Seeds
The substrate should be loose, breathable and nutritious, and have a neutral reaction. A mixture for Saintpaulias or one based on peat and sand will do. Drainage required. For successful germination, the soil must be moist at all times, but not wet.
The pot must be with a hole. Cover it with plastic or plastic wrap to create a greenhouse effect.
The air temperature is about 20-25 ° С. On cold windowsills, place a wooden board under the pot, thick magazines will do. With the emergence of seedlings, at a time with a short daylight hours, it is highly desirable to provide additional lighting with fluorescent or phytolamps. When the sprouts reach a height of 5-6 cm, they can be planted in separate pots of the appropriate size.
If this is not done, plants can grow weakened and bear fruit worse. The film can no longer be worn. As they grow, the peppers are transferred into larger pots. In the spring-summer period, they can be planted in open ground, and after rooting, pinned. This is done for better branching of the bush.
In order for the plant to develop correctly, to be healthy, to please the eye with its appearance and abundance of fruits, it will need a little care. It consists in creating and maintaining favorable conditions.
- Lighting... Capsicum prefers bright, diffused light. It is essential for fruit setting. West or east windows are perfect. On the south side, on sunny days from 11 am to 4 pm, or if the plant grows outdoors, shade should be provided. From the north side, as well as in winter, additional lighting is required. Otherwise, the plant may stretch out and lose its decorative effect.
Direct sunlight can cause ornamental pepper leaves to burn.
- Temperature... Moderate, during the growing season 15-25 ° C. In winter, when there is a lack of light, preferably around 15 ° C to slow down growth. It can withstand a drop of up to 10 ° C. Afraid of drafts, stretches out in the heat.
- Watering... In summer and during the flowering period, you need to water often, 3-4 times a week. If the plant is in the sun, then even more often. The soil should not dry out. During the ripening of the fruits, the watering soil is slightly reduced. If it's cool (10-15 ° C), watered once a week.
- Humidity... Undemanding to humidity. Spray 1-2 times a week, which after flowering promotes fruit formation.
- Top dressing... From April to September, liquid, complex fertilizers once every 2 weeks. After the ovary of the fruit, feeding is stopped.
Ornamental pepper flower
A healthy, strong plant blooms in summer with whitish, nondescript flowers. You can stimulate flowering with hormonal drugs, growth regulators. Fruits are set without cross-pollination, but transferring pollen with a soft brush from one flower to another will increase the number of ovaries. After the ovary, the shoots are pinched half the length. This enhances fruiting.
Diseases and pests, the fight against them
Pepper is unpretentious, but with improper care, even with it, difficulties may arise. The weakened plant is affected by spider mites, aphids, whitefly mealybug, downy mildew, black leg. Insecticides are used to control insects. Protect from diseases with fugnicides.
Mealybug Signs of aphids Black leg Spider mite
If you bring the plant from the street into the room, due to a sharp change in lighting, it may begin to shed its leaves. This also happens from hot, dry air or over-watering. The leaves can become smaller, turn pale, the plant does not bloom from lack of nutrition.
In general, Capsicum is an amazing plant, useful and beautiful in its own way. The Mexican requires minimal care, and watching his metamorphoses is interesting and informative. Under favorable conditions, he will delight you with himself for up to 5 years.
Planting pine seedlings
When purchasing pine seedlings in a nursery, you need to find out which environment is suitable for the plant so that it does not die. With self-cultivation, you do not need to worry about such measures. In addition, a purchased seedling with bare roots should be planted in the near future, and those growing in a pot can be planted at any convenient time. But you should not do this if the weather is hot, windy and dry.
When transplanting or planting pine seedlings, you should adhere to some rules:
- before planting, the root system of the seedlings should be moist, but not soaked
- if the roots have intertwined and occupied the entire container, forming a dense lump, then they need to be carefully separated a little
- you need to try to save as much land on the spines as possible
Each tree should have enough room to grow with plenty of light throughout the day. It is desirable that the seedlings are shaded from the west. If there is no such corner in the garden, then you need to build a sun visor.
The best soil will be a mixture of humus and sand, which should be diluted with turf and sphagnum.
The holes should be dug so deep that the straightened roots of the seedling fit into it. Falling asleep the hole, the soil needs to be lightly tamped. You should also take care of the support to which you need to tie a young pine tree.
Although growing pine trees from seeds will take a lot of effort and time, it is well worth it. If there are several such trees on the site, you can enjoy the beneficial coniferous air every day without going to the forest. Such a pine corner promotes health and saves money for the family budget during the New Year holidays. After all, you can dress up Christmas trees in the garden, which will add originality to the holiday.
More information can be found in the video:
Watch the video: How to Grow Arugula Microgreens Fast and Easy