Advantages and disadvantages of different types of vaccinations
Currently, more than 150 types of vaccinations have been developed in the world. It can be difficult for a novice graftsman, usually an amateur gardener, to understand their purpose, as well as to give preference to one or the other when carrying out work in each specific case.
It is clearly impossible and unnecessary to consider all the types of vaccinations existing in the world. Here we will look at ten of the most common ones, and each gardener will choose the one that suits him.
1. Ablactation - the most ancient type of vaccination, and sometimes even natural self-vaccination, which sometimes occurs spontaneously in nature. It was she who, undoubtedly, was originally noticed by a person and taken into service by him. Its main principle is a tight mechanical connection of two plants growing side by side with damage to the bark on their trunks (branches), or even without it.
Natural self-grafting can occur if a branch of one tree under the influence of some forces, for example, the wind, falls into a fork in another and gets stuck there. With further development and growth in diameter, the clamping and then ingrowth of plant tissues into each other will occur. Since each of them, at least initially, feeds on its roots, such a connection can occur not only between plants of the same species or closely related ones, but occasionally even among different, sometimes distant families.
Now in horticulture, ablation is of limited importance; it is used to firmly fasten the branches of fruit crops growing at an acute angle to the trunk in order to avoid breaking them off (some types of biochatalovka). And to create a completely impassable hedge: the branches of nearby trees or bushes are intertwined and fastened together, later they grow together. Work can be carried out almost all year round, although with spring grafting, accretion will occur faster. For beginners to vaccinate, this species can make a difference in acquiring the first vaccination experience.
2. Inoculation in cleft (pinching) - the second most ancient type of vaccination. It allows you to work on stocks with a thickness of 0.8 to 10 cm. At the stock, a trunk or branch is cut perpendicularly, the end of which is split in the center along (with a large stock diameter - twice, crosswise). One, often two, and in the latter case, four cuttings, each with two to four buds, are inserted into the resulting gap, at least 2.5–3 cm deep. Cuttings are cut on a flat, symmetrical double-sided wedge. At the same time, they try to combine the graft and stock with a cambium, that is, with the inner edges of the bark with each other.
With different diameters of components - at least on one side. This type of grafting gives a high survival rate of cuttings and an excellent accretion density. But it is laborious and not technologically advanced, therefore, it is almost never used in the mass production of seedlings in nurseries.
For amateur gardening, where labor intensity does not play a big role, this is one of the most recommended types of vaccination. It is easy for him to learn. The survival rate is high here. It gives strong adhesion even in cases where the stock had earlier wounds and scars on the bark, for example, from unsuccessful vaccinations in the past. You can perform this type of vaccination long before the start of sap flow (in March), and end with the blooming of flowers on the apple tree. It should only be remembered that the wedge on the handle should not be short and blunt. A blunt wedge cannot be aligned with the walls of the cleft, and, therefore, then there will be no fusion.
3. Simple copulation. Outwardly simple copulation is a very simple type of grafting: the rootstock and the scion are cut off with a long oblique cut, applied to each other and wrapped around. Its advantage is that with this type of grafting, very thin cuttings, ranging from 3 mm (and up to 15 mm), can be connected. This is almost impossible to achieve with other types of vaccinations.
It also has drawbacks - it requires a good eye and a certain dexterity, since it is very difficult to simultaneously hold the scion and rootstock, and even so that they do not move, and at the same time wrap the junction.
Another drawback is that simple copulation can only connect components that are close in diameter (they should not differ by more than 1/4). In case of incomplete coincidence of diameters, they strive to combine the scion and rootstock from at least two sides - from one side and from the bottom. In addition, the accretion of such cuttings in the early years is fragile: if handled carelessly, breakage is possible. To prevent them, it is imperative to tie a stick to the grafted seedling. The timing of the simple copulation vaccination is the same as for the cleft vaccination.
4. Copulation with tongue (English). This type of copulation, on the one hand, is more difficult to perform, it requires skill, since cuts (tongues) are additionally made on the scion and rootstock cuts, with which both components hook onto each other. On the other hand, it is easier, since, having hooked them, the handle can be released for a while, which makes it easier to apply the strapping. The fusion here is more durable than with simple copulation, it usually begins with the reeds. The optimum component diameter is 8 to 15 mm. You should strive for the maximum coincidence of their diameters.
The survival rate is also slightly higher than with simple copulation. The timing of the work is the same as with the two previous vaccinations. In addition, this vaccine is often used for “on the table” winter vaccination. It is also used when creating a crown on skeletal and stem-forming agents.
5. Grafting for the bark. One of the simplest grafts: the stock (its diameter can be from 2 to 20 cm) is cut across, and a longitudinal incision is made on its bark, then its corners are folded back.
The cutting is made on a simple one-sided wedge (as for simple copulation), only at the very bottom of it, from the side of the bark, it is desirable (but not necessary) to make a small, 2–4 mm flat. With its implementation, the survival rate increases. If the diameters of the rootstock and scions differ greatly, then the scions are inserted under the bark every 3 cm.
The disadvantages of this vaccination are that it is applicable only during the period of active spring sap flow, when the bark is easily separated. The first two to three years, the connection of the scion and rootstock remains very fragile, which requires taking measures to prevent breakage. For this, the cuttings are fixed by tying sticks.
6. Parasitic vaccination. With this method, the branch or trunk of the stock is not cut, but only about 1/4 of its diameter is cut out with a corner.
Below the cut, a longitudinal section of the bark is made, as in the case of grafting behind the bark, into which the cutting is inserted. The thickness of the branch is no more than 3 cm, the timing of these works is the same as when grafting for the bark. The disadvantages are the same as those of the previous vaccination. But she has more advantages: if the stalk is not grafted, then it and the strapping are removed, and the wound is covered with garden var. She then quickly overgrows.
In this case, the branch or trunk practically does not suffer, and they can be re-grafted in another place after a year. If the stalk is grafted, then the branch becomes unnecessary, and it is cut off at the grafting site. At the same time, the gardener should be very careful, since the stalk, as in the case of grafting for the bark, has grown very weakly. This type of grafting is good for those gardeners who are just learning to graft.
7. Side cut grafting.
Lateral grafting by cutting:
1 - inoculation in a lateral incision;
2 - inoculation from the side with two oblique sections;
3 - half-split grafting hemp: a - cut the lower end in the form of a wedge, b - insert the cutting, into the pruning of branches with a handwritten (according to N.P. Sikora, N.I. Kichunov and R. Garner)
An oblique incision is made on the trunk or branch with a diameter of 1.5 to 2.5 cm, into which an unequal wedge is inserted. This vaccination is quite difficult to carry out, as it requires a good eye. Its advantages - as in the case of parasitic inoculation, there is no need to immediately cut off the branch, but the fusion turns out to be more durable than with the previous one. So it is possible to inoculate not only in spring, but also in summer (July - August), when other types of cuttings are inapplicable. In this case, the stalk wakes up only next spring. This grafting is one of the main methods for replanting young trees in the garden and for repairing rootstocks that have not received budding.
8. Budding with a shield behind the bark. A T-shaped incision is made on the bark, its upper corners are slightly bent, and a shield with a bud and a piece of leaf petiole is inserted behind the bark, for which it is held.
The classic method of inoculation, it is carried out mainly during active sap flow, more often in summer (July - August), less often in spring (end of April - May), when the bark lags well behind. The rootstock diameter is 7–15 mm. Vaccination is not feasible if the bark is too thick and coarse.
In such cases, even if the shield was successfully inserted and engrafted, the bud often swells with bark and cannot germinate. The advantages of this method are that the vaccination is very technological and productive, with it the scion material is economically consumed (only one kidney). Bark bud budding is widely used for industrial grafting, but it is rather difficult for a novice grater.
9. Okulation with a flap in the butt. Do you make a pocket in the shape of a Greek letter with two cuts on the rootstock? (side view), into which a shield (with a bud and petiole) of a similar shape is inserted.
Advantages - the vaccination can be carried out in a much longer time interval than the previous one, since it does not require a good lag of the cortex. It is often used in late summer - early autumn on those rootstocks where budding for the bark has not taken root.
In this case, it is called podoculation. This grafting is effective on thin rootstocks. It gives better survival rate on cherries, roses and lilacs, as well as on overgrown rootstocks (with coarse and thick bark) than budding for bark.
10. Grafting with a bridge over the bark. This is a specific grafting, it is used to rescue adult trees that have been gnawed by hares, goats, mice. If such bites are found, they should be immediately covered with a decoction made from young linden bark (similar to jelly), which protects the cambium, and wrapped with plastic wrap on top so that the tissues do not dry out.
If the cambium has not died, then the bark in these areas will be restored. If he died, then, as soon as active sap flow begins, proceed with the vaccination. At least two bridges are placed on the damaged trunk, and for large trunk diameters - one for every 5–7 cm of the circumference. The edges of the resulting wounds are cleaned to a healthy place, cuts are made at the bottom and at the top as in grafting for the bark, long cuttings are taken, cut obliquely, as in copulation, first the lower end is inserted behind the bark, and then the upper one, and nailed with thin carnations, or tied tightly.
The cuttings should be slightly longer than the wound and arched. On top of the entire vaccine, they wrap it with plastic wrap, preferably black. The buds on the cuttings are not allowed to grow, otherwise the upper part of the bridge may not grow. A few years later, when the bridges grow well together, the dead section of the trunk is cut out with a chisel, and the wounds are covered with pitch.
As already mentioned, in addition to those listed, there are still a lot of different vaccinations - this is a lot of inoculations in the butt, which were not mentioned here, various copulations and buddings, bridge inoculations and others, but all of them do not have any special advantages over those proposed here or are rather complicated.
If you master at least a few of the listed vaccinations, then, firstly, you will already be able to solve most of the tasks of independently obtaining the desired varieties, and, secondly, having learned how to perform simple vaccinations, you will easily independently move on to performing any others, including and complex.
• The use of grafting in ornamental gardening. Create weeping tree shapes
• Grafting of fruit and ornamental plants
• Grafting of fruit and ornamental plants
• Methods for breeding clonal rootstocks
• Methods and rules for grafting fruit plants
• Reasons for incompatibility of scion and rootstock of fruit trees
Vladimir Starostin, dendrologist,
candidate of agricultural sciences
Autumn harvesting (at the beginning of the winter period)
Many of the gardeners prefer harvesting in the fall. It can be performed after all the leaves have fallen off, at the beginning of the first severe frosts (about -15C). The vegetation will then go into the sleep period, the shoots will harden, and in parallel a kind of disinfection will occur (harmful microorganisms cannot withstand such temperatures and die).
Why is it better to cut the cuttings in the fall?
- shoots are 1 year old, you are no longer afraid of strong frosts, and you, thereby, can prevent the risk of being left without material for inoculation.
- cuttings remain in hibernation, which began in the autumn, right up to the grafting process. Remember! Cuttings for grafting fruit trees are suitable only for those that are "hibernating"!
Poor harvest, insufficient quality of fruits, unsatisfactory variety, formation of a new crown after a windbreak, grafting of a pollinator variety, etc. can become indicators for re-grafting. The exceptions are the too old age of the tree, disease and unfavorable location.
You need to prepare for re-grafting even in winter. The main branches of the crown and the center conductor are cut at a specified height.
The shortened branches should form a triangle of approximately 60 ° with the center conductor at its highest point. When pruning in winter, it should be noted that the site for grafting prepared for the rootstock must be covered with protection to prevent drying out before grafting in the spring. The protection is removed only immediately before vaccination. Sweet cherries can be re-grafted in summer.
When cutting off large parts of the crown, the tree loses a significant part of its reserves. To ensure good fusion of cuttings, favorable horizontal branches should be left in the remaining part of the crown, which are in the lower part of each shortened branch. Thanks to the leaves on these branches, sufficient nutrition and the necessary metabolism are provided.
The so-called Sanguinelli Bloody Orange (Citrus sinensis ‘Sanguinelli’): a successful graft for the bark with a well-grown graft area.
These favorable horizontal branches should be weak so as not to compete with grafted cuttings.
In March or April, a fresh cut is made on the prepared rootstocks. Then cuttings are grafted, stored in a cool place and still in dormancy.
The bark and Tittel bark grafting methods are suitable here. If during the work it turns out that the bark is not separated to the required degree, then the method of grafting into the corner cut should be applied. If the diameter of the branches is 3 cm or more, then 2 cuttings can be grafted, and even 3 cuttings can be grafted onto even thicker branches, and one should be on the upper side of the rootstock. After the growth of cuttings the following winter, when grafting with several cuttings, only the strongest shoot is usually left, while other cuttings are shortened to 2 buds (to help heal the wound). The favorable horizontal branches, together with the grafted new variety, provide the tree with nourishment. Over the next 2-3 years, they need to be cut as the crown grows.
Birds often sit on protruding cuttings and young shoots of grafts.In order to prevent the cuttings from breaking, you need to install a curved rod or something like that above the graft and fix it well. By the way, grafts with split or bark without an incision differ from other grafts only by using a "moderate" force with which the cuttings are inserted into the stock.
In addition, here the stock is always much thicker than the scion. The graft for the bark according to Tittel is tied with a washcloth - this makes it easier to provide a tight tying.
High-stemmed ornamental plants
Different types of maple are grafted onto seed stocks by budding from July to August. You can also use copulation methods in winter. The graft that has awakened in spring is tied to a stump so that it grows straight. If necessary, the escape must be additionally tied to the established stake. In winter, pruning is carried out again: the strongest side shoots are cut into a ring, and the rest are shortened to 5-10 cm. This contributes to the thickening of the stem. Upon reaching the desired height of the trunk, an incision is made in the crown. The crown is formed from the upper awakened kidneys. In the summer, a competitor shoot is removed near the central conductor, if one has formed, and the lower-growing shoots are shortened.
If the crown has the desired shape, then at the end of summer only extra branches are cut out from it. At the same time, all lateral shoots formed on the trunk are cut out "on the ring". To quickly reach a tall stem, maple growing in a pot is grafted in winter at the desired height by copulation. Accordingly, only tall seedlings are suitable as a rootstock. Until spring, such an inoculation is grown in a greenhouse.
Trees with a strong apical bud do not shorten or undercut their vigorous crowns during formation.
Such plants include silver maple (Acer saccharinum), common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), red horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea), beech (Fagus), real walnut (fuglans regia), black walnut (Juglans nigra), liriodendron , or tulip tree (Liriodendron), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), mountain ash (Sorbus), etc.
Meat red horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea) is grown by grafting.
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Compound or site of vaccination
To fix the connection of the rootstock with the scion and prevent the cutting from drying out, the grafting site is wrapped with a special film.
For these purposes, you can use plastic wrap cut into strips. The width of the strips for convenience when wrapping should be 1.5 - 2 cm, the thickness of the film should be no more than 200 microns. You can use electrical tape. But in this case, do not allow it to stick to the bark. When the time comes to remove the harness, there is a high probability of damage to the branch at the point of adhesion.
To gloss over the sections on grafted cuttings and when grafted into the split and behind the bark, use var. Today, there is a large selection of remedies for healing wounds on a tree on sale, but an old tried and tested garden var is most suitable for grafting.
Grafting technology of fruit plants
Timing is important for vaccination. The active movement of juices in the plant helps the scion to take root faster, so spring or summer is the best time for such work.
There are the following methods of grafting fruit trees, which are actively used in horticulture:
- budding (eye)
- using a handle.
As a rule, both summer and spring periods are chosen for budding, and spring is still considered the best for working with a handle.
Option 1 - budding with a peephole
When budding, the graft is the bud of a varietal plant. The optimal time for budding depends on what stage of awakening it is at.
For the awakening bud, the best time is the beginning of sap flow - spring. Strict requirements are also imposed on the stock itself: the plant must have an elastic and soft bark. When using a dormant kidney, the second half of summer is considered the best time for work.
Preparing the stock for grafting
Around the rootstock plant, it is necessary to loosen the soil well in two weeks and free it from weeds. Water the tree if necessary. You do not need to be vaccinated on the southern side of the trunk of the plant, because the bud can dry out under the influence of the sun, without having time to really take root.
The order of work
Remove the kidney from the handle. For this job we need a sharp knife. A poorly sharpened instrument can damage the grafting material and render it completely unusable. Together with the kidney, we cut off the flap - a small area of the bark. At the same time, we try to capture as little wood as possible. If the work is carried out in the summer, then an incision is made above and below the kidney 1.5-2 cm, after which it is cut from left to right. If it happens in the spring, it makes sense to make the lower flap 1-1.5 cm longer.
We prepare the stock, for which we cut the bark on it and partially separate it. This is very easy to do in the spring. The cut should look like a "T". We bend the corners and get a pocket, which should be the same size as the scion. If the flap is too big, we cut it. The kidney is inserted into the resulting pocket with a precise motion from top to bottom. We do this carefully, holding the scion at the top of the shield. We fix the position of the kidney with a plastic strapping.
If budding of fruit trees was carried out in the spring, then after 15 days the bud should germinate. This fact will testify to the positive result of the work done. Remove the harness by carefully cutting it across the turns. In the case of summer budding, the bud germination will have to wait until next spring.
Option 2 - grafting by cutting
Grafting with cuttings of fruit trees is used in cases where:
- budding did not give the desired result
- the tree is damaged, but you intend to save it
- you need to replace one plant variety with another
- the crown of the tree is well developed only on one side and new branches are needed for the other side.
When using a cutting, work is also carried out in different ways: in a split, copulation, in a semi-split, behind the bark, in a lateral cut, etc.
Simple and improved copulation
For grafting fruit trees in this way, cuttings and branches of the rootstock are chosen of the same thickness. With a simple copulation on the rootstock branch and on the handle, we make oblique cuts approximately 3 cm long. We put the cutting cut on the rootstock cut and fix the place of their connection with foil or electrical tape. Lubricate the upper part of the cut with garden pitch. This work is carried out at the beginning of spring, and it will be possible to speak about its result in 2-2.5 months, when the rootstock and scion are fused.
For improved copulation, an additional surface is created for plant splicing. In this case, the cut on both plants is not made smooth, but in the form of a lightning. This zigzag creates a kind of lock when connected, which provides a better fit.
Using a side cut
On the lateral surface of the stock, an incision is made in depth so that about 3 cm remains to the opposite side. Insert the wedge into the rootstock split. Its wide side should match the outer surface of the branch. We firmly fix the position of the cutting.
When the stock is much thicker
For thick rootstocks, a bark graft is used. On the lower part of the cutting, a cut is made at an angle of 30 degrees. The bark on the stock is cut, after which a cutting is inserted into the resulting pocket. However, the bark just need not be cut. To do this, carefully bandage the stock so that the bark does not break during the work. After that, carefully separate the bark from the trunk. For this, it is better to use a copulating knife, which has a special bone for this purpose. We place the stalk in the pocket, fix the graft with a film, and grease its place with garden varnish.
Create a new variety
Re-grafting of already mature fruit trees by splitting is best suited for this purpose. From the alignment of the rootstock plant, we leave about 10-30 cm. We cut off all the skeletal branches from it. In the stumps, we make longitudinal splits about 5 cm deep. If the branch is thick, then even two scion cuttings can be placed in it. For a thin branch, a semi-split (not through) is suitable. The cuttings are cut so that "shoulders" (straight ledges) are formed, with which they will rest on the surface of the hemp. Clay is stuffed into the cleft, and the top of the cuttings and hemp are smeared with garden pitch. The vaccination site is recorded.
This list of options is not complete. With the development of gardening, we learn about other possibilities.
April is a good time for tree grafting and spring planting. Fruit trees and shrubs in April must also be treated against wintering pests. After the snow melts on the site, foliage is removed, which could not have time to be collected in the fall due to the early arrival of cold weather. Formative pruning of trees should be completed before sap flow begins, and the days before the onset of summer heat are most favorable for planting trees..
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