Climate change - Copenhagen 2009

Climate change - Copenhagen 2009

The countdown to the Copenhagen meeting on climate change begins

We have a few days.
A few days to guarantee the future of our planet.

(Let's make a deal and put it into action)

The climate conference will be held in Copenhagen from 7 to 18 December 2009, which will have to set the new terms for the reduction of greenhouse gases to replace the Kyoto protocol adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005 and ratified by 184 countries (among the most glaring exceptions the United States as the Bush administration had not ratified it and Australia which ratified it only at the end of 2007)

An important date. A milestone. Practically:

we have a few days. A few days to guarantee the future of our planet.

Generally speaking it can be said that the Kyoto has set as binding targets for industrialized countries, a reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by no less than 5% compared to the values ​​compared to 1990 levels, in the five-year period 2008 - 2012. The protocol recognizes industrialized countries as the mainly responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere as a result of over 150 years of industrial activity, imposing a greater burden on them based on the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities".

The procedures for implementing the protocol as well as being carried out through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide; methane; nitrous oxide; hydrofluorocarbons; perfluorocarbons; sulfur hexafluoride) also provides other possibilities to achieve the objectives set, the so-called "flexible mechanisms ":

a) Emissions Trading known as "the Carbon Market": Article 17 of the Protocol allows countries that have spare emission units (so called allowed but unused emissions) to sell this capacity in excess to countries that request it. This practice has taken on the current name of "carbon market" since carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas, carbon is now monitored and treated like any commodity;

b) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): referred to in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol which allows a country to carry out projects to reduce gas emissions in developing countries. This will make it possible to acquire credits (each equivalent to one ton of CO2) which can be counted towards the achievement of the Kyoto protocol objectives. In practice, environmental investments are rewarded (to understand, if a solar panel electrification system is built that brings electricity to a village, it buys credits). This mechanism started in 2006 and to date already has 1,650 projects;

c) Joint Implementation (JI - Joint Implementation): referred to in Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows companies in countries with emission restrictions to carry out projects in countries that also have emission restrictions. The difference between the quantity of greenhouse gases emitted with the implementation of the project and that which would have been emitted without the implementation of the project is considered an avoided emission and is credited in the form of credits (ERUs).

In fact, the Kyoto Protocol is considered a first step important towards a global regime to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provides a basis on which to work for future international agreements on climate change.

The first deadline of the Kyoto Protocol is 2012 and already, for example, Italy has been fined by the EU for 555 million euros as it has exceeded the emission levels granted thanks to the assignment of emission quotas to new electrical plants (consequently there is therefore a great deal with respect to the the fact that electricity bills will be more expensive in 2010 since obviously we consumers will pay but nothing is said about the greater pollution we are causing but the following statements by Undersecretary for Economic Development Stefano Saglia can be read on economic TGCOM "compared to other European countries, which have greater margins than ours to reduce CO2 emissions, our industrial and thermoelectric system is particularly efficient. For this reason it is impossible to respect the commitments undertaken by Pecoraro Scanio, who only wanted to boast of an agreement that actually penalizes Italy a lot. By 2012, Italy risks having to purchase the emission rights by paying 840 million euros, which will be borne by the State or directly by the companies "... words that are creepy for me as you are only looking for a scapegoat and do not think about the damage you are doing to the environment).

2009 is a particularly challenging year in addressing the problems associated with climate change. The UNFCCC (United Nations for Climate Change) has been holding meetings with representatives of various governments since the beginning of the year to negotiate a new protocol capable of providing stricter emission reductions based on the indications of experts on climate change. then in Copenhagen obviously with all the cards already on the table.

Ban Ki-moon, the Secretary General of the United Nations at the World Environment Forum held in Incheon (Republic of Korea) on 11 August 2009, among other things stated (here are some passages translated from English):

«(...) Climate change, (...) is the fundamental threat to humanity. All the problems we face are aggravating: poverty, disease, hunger and insecurity that impede progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. The food and energy crisis deepens. This is the harsh reality. But there is a positive side: if we want to fight climate change and make it sustainable (...) we can promote a green economy and green growth. We are able to fight hunger and poverty while protecting the environment. The downside is equally dramatic. If we fail to act, droughts, floods and other natural disasters will intensify. Water shortages will affect hundreds of millions of people. Malnutrition will engulf large areas of the developing world. Tensions will be destined to worsen. The damage to national economies will be enormous. Human suffering will be incalculable. We have the power to change course. But we have to do it now (...)».

We are in the third millennium, our future is today. Should the interests of a few prevail?

We have the technology. Will there be political will?

In the recent G8 held in July 2009 in L'Aquila (Italy) it was decided to contain the global temperature increase by two degrees Celsius by 2050. But this is not enough (considering among other things that it is not an operational plan was drawn up and there was no talk of investments) as has been amply highlighted: all too generic. Among other things, we need intermediate goals (for 2020), as science suggests or there will be no future for our planet.

We have a few days. A few days to guarantee the future of our planet.

Ban Ki-moon highlights four key points to have concrete results without which Copenhagen will be nothing:

  • in the first place, the industrialized countries must be an example by committing themselves to binding medium-term reduction targets in the order of 25% to 40% compared to 1990;
  • secondly, developing countries will have to, at the national level, adopt the appropriate strategies to reduce the growth of their emissions far below current values. Their actions must be measurable, notifiable and verifiable;
  • thirdly, developed countries will need to provide financial and technological support to developing countries to enable them to continue their efforts towards green growth;
  • fourthly, there will be a need for a fair and responsible mechanism for the distribution of financial and technological resources, taking into account the views of all countries in the decision-making process.

Ban Ki-moon's concerns are basically the same as Yvo de Boer, executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) who, in an interview with TV E & ETV on May 3, 2009, stated that it is essential to know with certainty how much industrialized countries are willing to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and how much developing countries such as China and India are important (and willing to reduce their emissions) (exonerated from the obligations of the protocol because they are considered not responsible for the current situation due to industrialization). In the same interview he also states that it is essential to know what kind of aid you intend to give to developing countries and to know how much money will be invested and how it will be managed.

Achieving all this requires having planetary interests at heart: how much will the powerful of nations allow us to still have a home? One thing gives hope: if today's political wills fail to achieve the necessary objectives, we think that: "political will is a renewable resource"(Al Gore An uncomfortable truth) and it is we, the common people, who have the power to renew it and therefore to decide!

Let's see this video that shows us how and what we are going towards.

I invite those who have websites, blogs or anything else on the net to adopt the slogan proposed by Ban Ki-moon "Seal the deal" (let's sign an agreement), to which I want to add

(Let's make a deal and put it into action).

Read also the article: A song for Copenhagen

Dr. Maria Giovanna Davoli

September 3, 2009

Online bibliographic sources

  • (miscellaneous) The United Nations
  • (es) UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)
  • (various) COP18 COPENHAGEN (United Nations Climate Change Conference DEC 7 - DEC 18 2009)
  • (es) IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
  • (en) European Commission
  • (ex) CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) UnfCCC
  • (es) EU ETS - Emission Trading System European Commission
  • (es) JI (Joint Implementation) UnfCCC
  • (en) International protection of the environment
  1. All the images in the article are taken from "The New De Agostini Geographic Atlas - For the family", De Agostini Geographic Institute, Novara, 1986
  2. From the html of this page you can copy and paste the countdown on your site

Population control called key to deal

By Li Xing (China Daily) Updated: 2009-12-10 07:37

COPENHAGEN: Population and climate change are intertwined but the population issue has remained a blind spot when countries discuss ways to mitigate climate change and slow down global warming, according to Zhao Baige, vice-minister of National Population and Family Planning Commission of China (NPFPC ).

"Dealing with climate change is not simply an issue of CO2 emission reduction but a comprehensive challenge involving political, economic, social, cultural and ecological issues, and the population concern fits right into the picture," said Zhao, who is a member of the Chinese government delegation.

Many studies link population growth with emissions and the effect of climate change.

"Calculations of the contribution of population growth to emissions growth globally produce a consistent finding that most of past population growth has been responsible for between 40 per cent and 60 percent of emissions growth," so stated by the 2009 State of World Population, released earlier by the UN Population Fund.

Although China's family planning policy has received criticism over the past three decades, Zhao said that China's population program has made a great historic contribution to the well-being of society.

As a result of the family planning policy, China has seen 400 million fewer births, which has resulted in 18 million fewer tons of CO2 emissions a year, Zhao said.

The UN report projected that if the global population would remain 8 billion by the year 2050 instead of a little more than 9 billion according to medium-growth scenario, "it might result in 1 billion to 2 billion fewer tons of carbon emissions".

Meanwhile, she said studies have also shown that family planning programs are more efficient in helping cut emissions, citing research by Thomas Wire of London School of Economics that states: "Each $ 7 spent on basic family planning would reduce CO2 emissions by more than one ton "whereas it would cost $ 13 for reduced deforestation, $ 24 to use wind technology, $ 51 for solar power, $ 93 for introducing hybrid cars and $ 131 electric vehicles.

She admitted that China's population program is not without consequences, as the country is entering the aging society fast and facing the problem of gender imbalance.

"I'm not saying that what we have done is 100 percent right, but I'm sure we are going in the right direction and now 1.3 billion people have benefited," she said.

She said some 85 percent of the Chinese women in reproductive age use contraceptives, the highest rate in the world. This has been achieved largely through education and improvement of people's lives, she said.

This holistic approach that integrates policy on population and development, a strategy promoting sustainable development of population, resources and environment should serve as a model for integrating population programs into the framework of climate change adaptation, she said.


Blanford G, Richels R, Rutherford T (2009a) International climate policy: a “second best” solution for a “second best” world? Climatic Change Letters (forthcoming)

Blanford G, Richels R, Rutherford T (2009b) Feasible climate targets: the roles of economic growth, coalition development and expectations. Energy Econ. doi: 10.1016 / j.eneco.2009.06.003

Bosetti V, Carraro C, Tavoni M (2008) Delayed participation of developing countries to climate agreements: should action in the EU and US be postponed? Eni Enrico Mattei Foundation, Working Paper N.70-2008

Bosetti V, Carraro C, Tavoni M (2009) Climate change mitigation strategies in fast-growing countries: the benefits of early action. Energy Econ. doi: 10.1016 / j.eneco.2009.06.011

Chakravarty S, Chikkatur A, de Conink H, Pacala S, Socolow R, Tavoni M (2009) Sharing global CO2 emission reduction among one billion high emitters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106 (29): 11884–11888

Clarke L, Edmonds J, Krey V, Richels R, Rose S, Tavoni M (2009) International climate policy architectures: overview of the EMF 22 international scenarios. Energy Econ (in press)

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Keppo I, Rao S (2007) International climate regimes: effects of delayed participation. Technol Forecast Soc Change 74 (7): 962–979

Robins N, Clover R, Singh C (2009) A climate for recovery: the color of stimulus goes green. HSBC Global Research

Climate change - Copenhagen 2009

Observed annual median and trend of the Mean Potential Hail Index (PHI) over the period 1951-2010

Note: Based on the logistic hail model (Mohr, Kunz, and Geyer, 2015) and reanalysis data from NCEP-NCAR (Kalnay, et al., 1996). Trends with significance below the 5% level are cross-hatched. Note that significant trends are only found for values ​​below -5 PHI over the period.

Past trends

Trends in days with hail have been calculated using surface-based observations, but are unreliable owing to the limited number of stations and the stochastic nature of hailstorms [i]. Trends in hail observations are sometimes analyzed using reports of damage as a proxy (e.g. insurance claims), although damage is also a function of the vulnerability of the impacted area to damage. Several European regions show an increase in the convective conditions that can potentially form hail. In some areas (such as south-west Germany), an increase in damage days is observed [ii]. However, these changes are not uniform across Europe, with large regional differences mostly related to topography.

A study of hailstorm frequencies over the period 1978–2009 in Germany and eastern Europe shows general increases in convective available potential energy (CAPE) and increases in evaporation, which have been attributed to rising temperatures, but the changes in these weather variables do not necessary modify the numbers and intensities of severe convective storms [iii]. The atmosphere has become more unstable, and thus more suitable for hail, especially in southern and central Europe, where the temperature increase in summer has been particularly large [iv].

Recently, European hail climatology for the period 1951–2010 was analyzed using a combination of various meteorological parameters relevant for thunderstorms and hail [v]. This has been expressed as the potential hail index (PHI), which quantifies the atmospheric potential for hailstorms. The climatology shows the highest values ​​of the mean PHI for the areas north and south of the Alps, the eastern Adriatic coast and parts of eastern Europe (Figure 1 left). Increasing hail trends (with a PHI over 3 in the period 1951–2010) are found in southern France and Spain, and decreasing trends (with a PHI lower than –5 in the period 1951–2010) in eastern Europe (Figure 1 right) . However, trends are not significant (at the 5% significance level) in most grid boxes.


Much of the published work relevant to future hail projections is based upon developing the relationships between large-scale atmospheric environments and small-scale severe weather events, such as severe thunderstorms, hailstorms and tornadoes. Available projections suggest increases in CAPE, which result in conditions that favor severe thunderstorms becoming more frequent, and decreases in wind shear, which reduces the likelihood of hailstorms [vi].

Different RCMs have been used for assessing changes in hailstorms at the national and sub-national scales. A statistically significant downwards trend for hailstones with diameters between 21 and 50 mm was projected for the United Kingdom [vii]. An increase in hailstorm frequency between 7 and 15% for the period 2031–2045 compared with 1971–2000 was projected for south-west Germany based on large-scale weather patterns [viii]. Using the PHI and an ensemble of seven RCMs, an increase in hail probability over most areas of Germany was projected for the period 2021–2050 compared with 1971–2000 [ix]. The projected changes are largest in southern Germany (values ​​of almost 7 PHI). However, the results are subject to large uncertainties, mainly owing to low spatial resolution and convective parametrisation schemes in regional climate models [x]. Improving the convective parametrisation schemes and increasing the spatial resolution of models would improve the accuracy of future hail projections.

[i] HJ Punge and M. Kunz, “Hail Observations and Hailstorm Characteristics in Europe: A Review,” Atmospheric Research 176–77 (August 1, 2016): 159–84, doi: 10.1016 / j.atmosres.2016.02.012 .

[ii] M. Kunz, J. Sander, and Ch. Kottmeier, “Recent Trends of Thunderstorm and Hailstorm Frequency and Their Relation to Atmospheric Characteristics in Southwest Germany,” International Journal of Climatology 29, no. 15 (December 1, 2009): 2283–97, doi: 10.1002 / joc.1865.

[iii] S. Mohr and M. Kunz, “Recent Trends and Variabilities of Convective Parameters Relevant for Hail Events in Germany and Europe,” Atmospheric Research, 6th European Conference on Severe Storms 2011. Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 123 (April 1 , 2013): 211–28, doi: 10.1016 / j.atmosres.2012.05.016 Punge and Kunz, "Hail Observations and Hailstorm Characteristics in Europe."

[iv] S. Mohr, M. Kunz, and B. Geyer, “Hail Potential in Europe Based on a Regional Climate Model Hindcast,” Geophysical Research Letters (submitted) (2015).

[v] S. Mohr, M. Kunz, and B. Geyer, “Hail Potential in Europe Based on a Regional Climate Model Hindcast,” Geophysical Research Letters (submitted) (2015)

[vi] HE Brooks, “Severe Thunderstorms and Climate Change,” Atmospheric Research, 6th European Conference on Severe Storms 2011. Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 123 (April 1, 2013): 129–38, doi: 10.1016 / j.atmosres .2012.04.002.

[vii] M. G. Sanderson et al., “Projected Changes in Hailstorms during the 21st Century over the UK,” International Journal of Climatology 35, no. 1 (January 1, 2015): 15–24, doi: 10.1002 / joc.3958.

[viii] M.-L. Kapsch et al., “Long-Term Trends of Hail-Related Weather Types in an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models Using a Bayesian Approach,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117, no. D15 (August 16, 2012): D15107, doi: 10.1029 / 2011JD017185.

[ix] S. Mohr, M. Kunz, and K. Keuler, “Development and Application of a Logistic Model to Estimate the Past and Future Hail Potential in Germany,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, no. 9 (May 16, 2015): 2014JD022959, doi: 10.1002 / 2014JD022959.

[x] E. M. Fischer et al., “Models Agree on Forced Response Pattern of Precipitation and Temperature Extremes,” Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. 23 (December 16, 2014): 2014GL062018, doi: 10.1002 / 2014GL062018.

Indicator definition

Hail is commonly classified according to diameter of the hailstones for example, hail> = 2cm diameter.

Hailstorm intensity scale classifies hail on a scale from H0, being hard hail with diameter 5 mm causing no damage to H10, being super hailstorms with diameter> 100 mm and causing extensive structural damage with risk of severe or fatal injuries to people.

Hail is here defined with the potential hail index (PHI), which quantifies the atmospheric potential for hailstorms and can be derived from atmospheric numerical models.



Justification for indicator selection

Hailstorms are most common in mid-latitudes with high surface temperature and humidity, as these conditions promote the required instability associated with strong thunderstorms and the temperature in the upper atmosphere is sufficiently low to support ice formation. The occurrence of hail over Europe is not uniform over space and time. Most hail events occur in summer or nearby mountain areas where convective energy and trigger mechanisms for convection are highest.

Hail is responsible for significant damage. For example, three hailstorm events in Germany in July and August 2013 caused around EUR 4.2 billion of combined damages to buildings, crops, vehicles, solar panels, greenhouses and other infrastructure.

Scientific references

  • A new physically based stochastic event catalog for hail in Europe. Punge, HJ, Bedka, KM, Kunz, M. and Werner, A., 2014, 'A new physically based stochastic event catalog for hail in Europe', Natural Hazards 73 (3), 1625–1645 (DOI: 10.1007 / s11069 -014-1161-0).
  • Hail observations and hailstorm characteristics in Europe: A review. Punge, H. J. and Kunz, M., 2016, 'Hail observations and hailstorm characteristics in Europe: A review', Atmospheric Research 176–177, 159–184 (DOI: 10.1016 / j.atmosres.2016.02.012).
  • Munich Re, NatCatSERVICE. Munich RE, 2015, 'NatCatSERVICE' ( accessed 5 August 2015.

Policy context and targets

Context description

In April 2013 the European Commission presented the EU Adaptation Strategy Package ( This package consists of the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change / * COM / 2013/0216 final * / and a number of supporting documents. One of the objectives of the EU Adaptation Strategy is Better informed decision-making, which should occur through Bridging the knowledge gap and Further developing Climate-ADAPT as the 'one-stop shop' for adaptation information in Europe. Further objectives include Promoting action by Member States and Climate-proofing EU action: promoting adaptation in key vulnerable sectors. Many EU Member States have already taken action, such as by adopting national adaptation strategies, and several have also prepared action plans on climate change adaptation.

The European Commission and the European Environment Agency have developed the European Climate Adaptation Platform (Climate-ADAPT, to share knowledge on observed and projected climate change and its impacts on environmental and social systems and on human health on relevant research on EU, national and subnational adaptation strategies and plans and on adaptation case studies.

In November 2013, the European Parliament and the European Council adopted the 7 th EU Environment Action Program (7 th EAP) to 2020, 'Living well, within the limits of our planet'. The 7 th EAP is intended to help guide EU action on environment and climate change up to and beyond 2020. It highlights that 'Action to mitigate and adapt to climate change will increase the resilience of the Union's economy and society, while stimulating innovation and protecting the Union's natural resources. 'Consequently, several priority objectives of the 7 th EAP refer to climate change adaptation.


Related policy documents


Methodology for indicator calculation

Hail forms within deep convective clouds with observations recorded only by ground based hail pad networks. Proxies for hail events can be also derived from satellite temperature imagery and radar reflectivity.

The occurrence of hail is related to atmospheric instability so its likelihood is related indices such as the convective instability index (CI) and the potential hail index (PHI). These indices are usually considered in combination with mesoscale factors such as wind flow, specific humidity and water vapor flux.

Methodology for gap filling

Proxies for hail events can be also derived from satellite temperature imagery and radar reflectivity. These are supplemented with eye witness and media reports which are collected by organizations such as the Tornado and Storm Research organization (TORRO), the European Severe Storm Laboratory (ESSL) which maintains the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD), and Schweizer Hagel (an agricultural cooperatives). These databases provide information about the spatial distribution and the frequency of severe convection. However, observational databases are limited in spatial or temporal extent and biased towards population centers where there are more observers.

Methodology references

  • Recent trends of thunderstorm and hailstorm frequency and their relation to atmospheric characteristics in southwest Germany. Kunz, M., Sander, J. and Kottmeier, C., 2009, 'Recent trends of thunderstorm and hailstorm frequency and their relation to atmospheric characteristics in southwest Germany', International Journal of Climatology29 (15), 2283–2297 (DOI: 10.1002 / joc.1865).
  • Recent trends and variabilities of convective parameters relevant for hail events in Germany and Europe. Mohr, S. and Kunz, M., 2013, 'Recent trends and variabilities of convective parameters relevant for hail events in Germany and Europe', Atmospheric Research123, 211–228 (DOI: 10.1016 / j.atmosres.2012.05.016).
  • Hail potential in Europe based on a regional climate model hindcast. Mohr, S., Kunz, M. and Geyer, B., 2015, 'Hail potential in Europe based on a regional climate model hindcast', Geophysical Research Letters42 (24), 10904–10912 (DOI: 10.1002 / 2015GL067118).


Methodology uncertainty

Data sets uncertainty

The occurrence of hail over Europe is not uniform as most hail events occur in the summer over Central Europe where convective energy is greatest. Trends in hail observations are sometimes made by using damage as a proxy although damage is also a function of hail type (size, density, accompanying horizontal wind speed and kinetic energy) and vulnerability of the impacted area to damage. The uneven distribution of hail pads across Europe makes trends difficult to detect by using only in-situ based observations.

Hail occurrences are also closely related to specific lightning signals with lightning detection data available from different sources. Radar data is another important proxy for hail events with a very high temporal and spatial resolution. However, radar reflectivity for most of European regions is only available since the mid-2000 and hence limited to assess the trends.

European MSG (SEVIRI) satellite data were used to develop a catalog of hail events in Europe based on overshooting top data (OT).

Another method is to use combined different meteorological parameters relevant for hailstorm formation using a logistic model. Applied to different reanalysis data sets, the logistic model estimates the number of days with an increased potential of hail occurrence, denoted to as potential hail index.

The ever-increasing amount of plastic, its impact on biodiversity and contribution to climate change, and how to deal with it in a circular economy perspective have been on the European Union's policy agenda for years. The COVID-19 pandemic has only increased the attention for plastic waste with images of masks in our seas, and large amounts of single-use protective gear. In the circular plastics economy report, published today, the European Environment Agency (EEA) analyzes the need and potential for a shift to a circular and sustainable approach to our use of plastics.

The increased use of renewable electricity across the European Union has not only reduced pressures linked to climate change, but also to air and water pollution (particulate matter formation, eutrophication and acidification), according to a European Environment Agency (EEA) briefing published today. More targeted actions can help minimize the negative environmental effects of boosting renewable electricity supply.

Water and Climate Change

In some regions, droughts are exacerbating water scarcity and thereby negatively impacting people’s health and productivity. Ensuring that everyone has access to sustainable water and sanitation services is a critical climate change mitigation strategy for the years ahead.

A man serves lentils to a young girl at a feeding center in Mogadishu, Somalia in 2017 during a severe drought. A Photo / Tobin Jones


More floods and severe droughts are predicted. Changes in water availability will also impact health and food security and have already proven to trigger refugee dynamics and political instability.

A piece by street artist Banksy near the Oval bridge in Camden, north London in view of the UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen in 2009.


Closing Ceremony of COP21, Paris, France. UN Photo/Mark Garten

Paris Agreement


Facts and Figures

  • Climate change impacts are most felt through changing hydrological conditions including changes in snow and ice dynamics. (United Nations, 2020)
  • Climate change will have its most direct impact on child survival through three direct channels: changing disease environments, greater food insecurity, and threats to water and sanitation. (UNICEF, 2019).
  • Climate change is projected to increase the number of water-stressed regions and exacerbate shortages in already water-stressed regions. (United Nations, 2020)
  • By 2050, the number of people at risk of floods will increase from its current level of 1.2 billion to 1.6 billion. In the early to mid-2010s, 1.9 billion people, or 27% of the global population, lived in potential severely water-scarce areas. In 2050, this number will increase to 2.7 to 3.2 billion people. (United Nations, 2020)
  • Over a fifth of the world’s basins have recently experienced either rapid increases in their surface water area indicative of flooding, a growth in reservoirs and newly inundated land or rapid declines in surface water area indicating drying up of lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, floodplains and seasonal water bodies. (UN-Water 2021)

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  • 1 Proposte di tagli di anidride carbonica (per paese)
    • 1.1 Unione europea
    • 1.2 Stati Uniti
    • 1.3 Cina
    • 1.4 India
    • 1.5 Brasile
    • 1.6 Giappone
    • 1.7 Australia
    • 1.8 Sudafrica
  • 2 Voci correlate
  • 3 Altri progetti
  • 4 Collegamenti esterni

Unione europea Modifica

L'Unione europea propone di tagliare le emissioni di gas a effetto serra del 20% rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020.

Oppure tagliare le emissioni di gas serra del 30%, rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020, se gli altri paesi arrivano ad un accordo internazionale più avanzato.

Stati Uniti Modifica

Gli Stati Uniti propongono di tagliare le emissioni di gas a effetto serra del 17% rispetto ai livelli del 2005 entro il 2020, del 42% entro il 2030 e l'83% entro il 2050.

Ciò significa ridurre drasticamente i gas serra del 1,3% rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020, del 31% entro il 2030 e dell'80% entro il 2050.

Cina Modifica

La Cina propone di tagliare l'intensità di emissioni di gas nell'aria del 30-45% rispetto ai livelli del 2005 entro il 2020.

India Modifica

L'India propone di tagliare l'intensità di emissioni del 20-25% rispetto ai livelli del 2005 entro il 2020.

Brasile Modifica

Il Brasile propone di tagliare le emissioni del 38-42% rispetto ai livelli del 2005 entro il 2020.

Ciò equivale a un taglio di emissioni tra 1,8% e il 5% rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020.

Giappone Modifica

Il Giappone propone di tagliare le emissioni del 25% rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020.

Australia Modifica

L'Australia propone di tagliare le emissioni di gas a effetto serra del 5% rispetto ai livelli del 2000 entro il 2020.

Ciò equivale a un taglio di emissioni del 23,9% rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020.

Sudafrica Modifica

Il Sudafrica propone di tagliare le emissioni del 34% rispetto ai livelli attuali entro il 2020.

Ciò equivale a un taglio di emissioni tra il 3% e il 10,4% rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020.

Video: George Monbiot meets Boris Johnson at the Copenhagen climate conference