Grapes are known and loved in different parts of the world. It is grown both in garden plots and on plantations. The popularity of the plant is explained by the fact that its berries are suitable for making wonderful drinks, confectionery, and raisins are obtained from them. The leaves of grape plants with beneficial properties are used for food. One of the best representatives of this culture is the Amur breakthrough grape.
The history of the origin of the variety
In the wild forests in the Far East and northern regions of China, a variety of grapes grows, called Ussuri, and more often Amur. It has strong branches, matte wrinkled foliage, acquiring a red-burgundy color in autumn.
Grape bushes grow near streams and rivers. The size of its seedless fruits is about 2 cm. They are colored dark purple, more reminiscent of black. The grape has a varied range of flavors. There are plants with flowering female or male species. They bloom at the end of May. The fruits appear on a grape bush that has a female type of flowers. Bunches ripen by the end of the last decade of September.
Numerous experiments involving the crossing of local frost-resistant varieties have resulted in a new type of grape, frost-resistant, disease-resistant. From the wild grape bushes of the Amur region, a world-renowned breeder A.I. Potapenko was genetically produced a variety called Amur Breakthrough. He gave rise to varieties of frost-resistant grape crops.
The Amur breakthrough grapes are found under the names Potapenko-7 and Odin.
Wild Amur grapes - the progenitor of the Amur breakthrough
Description of the Amur breakthrough grape variety
This is a vigorous plant. The grape bush develops rapidly. The shoots that appeared in the 1st year first have a green color, in the autumn they darken, acquire a red tint. There are many shoots. In one season, the bush can grow up to 2.5 m. The vine, resting on the trellises, the walls of buildings, stretches up to 35 m in several years. The trunk diameter can reach 20 cm. The bark is thin, brown. Every year, more and more of its detachment is observed.
Leaves are rounded or elongated in shape, with denticles at the edges, reaching 250 mm in length. On the reverse side of the leaf plates there is a short, light fluff.
In autumn, the foliage of the Amur breakthrough grapes turns red, which looks very elegant
The berries of the Amur Breakthrough are round, dark pink, dark blue or purple in color. A bunch of grapes weighs on average about 300-400 g. Its weight is directly influenced by the growing conditions of the culture. Each berry weighs about 4 g. Its size is about 15 mm.
The berries are larger than wild grapes, but the increase in size has weakened the dark pigmentation, making them paler.
The skin of the fruit is firm. The taste of juicy sweet pulp is pleasant. The fruits are well transported, not damaged by wasps. The Amur breakthrough grape variety is similar in properties to representatives of the Far Eastern varieties: Amethystovy, Triumph, Neretinsky.
Potapenko was able to improve the taste of the berries of local wild grapes and make the resulting variety useful both for table consumption and for use as a valuable raw material in the production of high-quality wines, juices, compotes, and preserves. Essential oils, coffee substitutes, are obtained from berry seeds.
The Amur breakthrough is distinguished by a high sugar level - 23%. This value is also significant for a number of southern varieties.
Berries of Amur Breakthrough grapes - with a dense skin, juicy pulp, pleasant taste
Features of the variety
The Amur breakthrough is the best resistant to frost of all grape varieties. In mature plants, the vine can survive outdoors at -40 ° C. This quality makes it possible to grow such grapes in the regions of the North, in the Far East. The variety has gained popularity in the regions of central Russia.
Spring frosts are not terrible for grapes. After them, he quickly recovers. Even if individual branches freeze, the shoots replacing them will bear fruit. A feature of the Amur breakthrough grapes is the increased need for moisture. The development of the variety is adversely affected by the dry climate, summer drought, so the plant must be watered in a timely manner.
Amur breakthrough grapes give good yields with sufficient moisture
The variety has an average degree of resistance to various diseases, but it can be subject to the dangerous mildew fungal disease (downy mildew), which is characteristic of European grape varieties.
Bunches of grapes ripen towards the end of summer. The yield of this variety is good. More than 10 kg of fruits are removed from one bush.
Since the bushes are capable of developing rapidly, the grown perennial plants that have an arbor shape can yield up to 100 kg of harvest.
Features of planting and growing
Amur breakthrough grapes are planted in different ways:
A plant obtained from seeds may lose the flavor inherent in the variety. In addition, fruiting with this method of planting occurs late: you will have to wait from 3 to 5 years. Therefore, it is easier to grow grapes from seedlings or cuttings.
Video: seedlings for planting
When planting, you need to choose a well-lit land plot, for example, its southern, south-western side - the grapes love sunlight. Planting vines is preferable on the border of the garden holdings. Plants located in one line will take up less space, they will be better illuminated by the sun from all sides.
A lot of light is required for good ripening of grape bunches.
During the period of fruit ripening, the vine does not tolerate the wind, especially the cold one. Therefore, from the northern edge of the site, they try to close the plants with a wall or trees.
Any soil is suitable for growing the Amur Breakthrough, but it is preferable to choose loose, acidic soils, moist, with good drainage. You should not plant grapes in an area where groundwater passes close, so that the roots do not wash away, which is harmful to the culture.
Worse grapes grow on limestone lands, prone to rapid drying. When the soil on the site is alkaline, sod land and peat are added to it. If there are buildings nearby, then the water from the roofs should not fall on the plant.
On level areas of land next to ridges, furrows should be made to drain water. On fertile soils, the roots of the plant develop well at first, but when the soil is waterlogged, they begin to suffocate. Excess moisture can be removed by deep holes in the ground with normal natural drainage, possibly by creating artificial drainage conditions.
Landing time and scheme
The culture is planted after drying and warming up the soil. In the southern territories, this occurs on May 5–20, in the northern regions, the time for planting is the whole of June. If the grapes are planned to be planted in two or more rows, then the distance between the rows is 2 m, between the plants - 1.5 m.
Preparation and planting of seedlings
The planting material is one-year (two-year) seedlings with a well-developed root system, which have more than 3 internodes. The main roots of the planting material at the bottom of the cutting are cut off before planting, leaving 15 cm; remove all diseased, frozen roots.
With an underdeveloped main root system, the roots of the nodes are left. In this case, instead of a vertical landing, an inclined one is carried out.
For planting use 1-2-year-old seedlings
Together with the roots, the cutting is shortened, leaving 3-4 lower ripe buds on it. The trimmed roots are immersed in a mixture of clay and manure (chatterbox). After that, they take root better. If there is no such mixture, the roots are dipped in a container with water and the plant is left in this state until planting.
Before planting grape seedlings, dig a hole or a common trench under each of them, 0.8 - 1.9 m wide and at least as deep as the length of the root shoots. At the bottom, the soil can be loosened to the depth of a shovel bayonet, the bottom can be laid with drainage: sand, gravel, broken brick. Then, at the bottom of the pit, a hill is built from the excavated soil, compost (10 kg), superphosphate (300 g), potassium salt (calcium chloride) or fertile forest soil (100 g).
For the convenience of planting grapes, you can dig not separate holes, but a single trench
A seedling is placed on top of the dais, distributing the roots around the entire circumference. Pour 10 liters of water into the well. Then it is covered with fertilized soil to the very top. The bud located at the bottom of the seedling should be level with the ground. Once again, the planted plant is watered so that the soil settles. From above, the seedling is spud with fertile soil to a height of 4‒5 cm, hay and straw are placed. Role of mulch:
- retain moisture in the soil even in hot weather;
- inhibit the growth of weeds;
- protect plants from rodents.
The soil under the grapes is regularly loosened. At this time, the mulch is shifted, and at the end of the work, they are returned back. A trellis is installed near the plants for support. In its simplest form, it is simply a stick to which the vine is tied.
Video: mistakes when growing grapes
It is necessary to provide for such a design of the trellis that will stand for a long time and will not need to be changed.
- Pegs are prepared from long thick branches of acacia or other material. The height of one is about 1.5 m.
- The outside is treated with resin to prevent decay. Part of the pegs protruding above the ground can be painted or varnished.
- The pegs are driven into the ground, leaving a gap of 4 m between them.
- To make the structure more stable, additional supports are placed at the first and last pegs.
- Pull the wire or ropes between all the pegs in 2 rows. The location of the first row is 0.3‒0.4 m from the ground surface. The second row is pulled 0.3 m from the first.
For grapes, you need to install a trellis
How to care for Amur breakthrough grapes after planting
In dry weather, the grapes are watered. In order to accelerate the growth and development of the bush, simultaneously with watering, fertilizing is carried out with slurry diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5. Instead of manure, you can use a complex fertilizer containing phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium (70 g of fertilizer per bucket of water).
It is possible to simplify the procedure for watering the plant by installing a pipe with a diameter of 100 mm inside the pit while placing the process in it. Its tip should rise above the top of the soil. Through the hole and water the planted sprout. The water will flow directly to the root system.
For watering the grapes, even during planting of the seedling, a pipe can be installed in the hole
The ripening of the vine is stimulated by breaking off the formed stepsons. With the onset of September, the main processes are pinched. In the grafted branches, the roots that have arisen on the scion at the point of adhesion of the rootstock (main shoot) and the scion (a shoot grafted to the main plant) are cut off.
Formation of grape bushes
If the grape bushes are not given the necessary shape in time, then in the process of their development, the plant has many additional unnecessary shoots that grow chaotically. They harm future crops by consuming food. Over the years, the formation takes place as follows:
- In the 1st year, no more than 2 strong shoots are taken out, of which the base (shoulders) of the bush will consist, the rest of the shoots, including the branches that appeared in the places of foliage growth of the left shoots, break off.
- In the spring season of the 2nd year, 2-3 buds should be left on one twig, the rest of the branch should be removed.
- In the 3rd year, 2 of the strongest processes are left on each of the shoulders, they are cut off by 0.5 m, the others are removed. These shoots will be the sleeves of the bush. During the summer season, 2-3 shoots are grown on each arm.
- In the spring of the 4th year, the upper shoot of each sleeve should be left for fruiting, cutting it off after 10-15 buds. The lower shoot is left for replacement, cut it off, leaving 3 buds. Shoots of fruiting and replacement will make up the fruit link of the bush. In total, 4–6 fruit links should remain on the bush. Thus, fruitful shoots will develop from the buds of fruiting shoots next year, and new 2-3 shoots will be ready to replace the shoots that have finished fruiting.
Subsequently, pruning of grapes is carried out in the same way: on one of the shoots grown for replacement intended for fruiting, up to 15 buds are left; on another shoot grown for replacement next year - up to 3 buds.
The bushes are pruned twice: in the fall, before the digging of the plant, in the spring - after its excavation. For fruiting, you need to leave young annual shoots in such an amount that they have from 60 to 100 pieces of buds with the rudiments of inflorescences.
In the spring, the bushes are freed from shelter, the shoots are cut off for replacement (by 2-3 buds), the vines are tied to a trellis. Sleeves with fruiting branches are tied horizontally to the two bottom rows of wire, and the shoots that will grow in summer are tied vertically. During the summer period, all excess shoots and part of the shoots from the shoulders and sleeves are removed from the grape bush.
With the onset of September, in order for the vines to ripen better, they carry out a minting, which consists in removing the upper part from the shoots with a height of 3 to 5 internodes (places of attachment of leaves). If the chasing is done too early when the bush is developing, many stepchildren will form.
What does the annual care of Amur breakthrough grapes include?
Some features of grape care:
- each season begins with the removal of the covering material. In spring, it is often cold and snowing. Grapes are a thermophilic culture, and the formation of sap requires a soil temperature of at least 8aboutC. For the southern regions, such conditions are typical for the first decade of May. If grapes are opened early, their branches and buds will begin to dry out and die. If it is too late to open the plant, then the buds that have begun to develop can resist, break off when the coating is removed;
- the removal of the covering material is followed by pruning and dry (spring) binding it to the trellis. Sleeves are tied to the lower part of the support (wire or hemp twine), above - hearth branches;
- before the dry garter, the plant is cut in order to form the fruiting branches of the bush. Fruit links of the current year's harvest consist of shoots that have formed on replacement knots. On bushes of four arms, about 8 fruit links should be left. To this end, you need to keep 2 low-growing shoots on replacement knots. The one that is higher must contain at least 15 eyes, the lower one (replacement shoot) - 4–5 eyes. When forming fruit links, it is better to leave the shoots below, so as not to promote the growth of older parts of the plant, which will make it difficult to dig in the bush;
- autumn pruning of grapes is best done while removing branches from the trellis. Spring pruning is best done when the buds swell or begin to bloom;
- The Amur Breakthrough likes moist soil, it needs timely watering. Water consumption is measured with 3 buckets per adult plant. When watering, it should be remembered that the culture cannot stand when the roots are washed away. To prevent the flowers from falling off the plant during the flowering period, the plant does not need to be watered a week before.
Video: caring for grapes Amur breakthrough
Shelter for the winter
The Amur breakthrough grape belongs to frost-resistant varieties. It is not covered at -20 ° C.The exception is young seedlings, which should be closed in the first year after planting.
At lower temperatures, the grapes are covered. It is removed from the trellises for the winter to be covered with snow. Severe frost can destroy up to a third of the branches of the crop, but the remaining branches are quite enough for recovery and a good harvest. For this reason, grapes are sometimes grown without pruning.
The Amur breakthrough is frost-resistant, but in the northern regions it requires shelter for the winter
Amur breakthrough grapes should attract the attention of gardeners. It is good for growing in different climatic conditions, being an unpretentious and frost-resistant crop. In addition, the variety has a stable yield, large berries with a memorable taste and original foliage that adorns the garden.
Hello! I have two higher educations: economist and technologist.
Rate the article:
(10 votes, average: 4.1 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
This is the name of not one variety, but a whole group of grape varieties., which are characterized by a pleasant nutmeg aroma. They are appreciated all over the world, differing in color, shape, size and method of application.
Especially the price of muscat wines. Consider the main types of nutmeg grapes:
- Differs in dense and juicy pulp.
- The berries are round, small in size, like the bunches themselves, the weight of the bunch is on average 300-400 g.
- The ripening period of this variety is early-medium (140 days).
- It does not have a high yield.
- To increase this indicator, it is necessary to plant additional pollinators nearby.
- The taste of White Muscat was rated at 4.3.
- This variety has an early ripening period of 110 days, but technically it only matures at 140 days.
- At this time, the berries are the sweetest and most delicious.
- The flavoring qualities of the berries deserve a rating of 4.3.
- The bunches of grapes are very small, an average of 200 g.
- The pulp is juicy, dense, the skin is thin and covered with bloom.
- The color can be pink or dark red.
- Differs in average productivity.
- This variety is most suitable for fresh consumption.
- For this purpose, Summer Muscat is considered the best.
- Its pleasant, sweet taste was appreciated at 4.7 points.
- In addition, the variety is distinguished by good frost resistance (withstands up to -25), and good yield.
- For nutmeg varieties, the berries are large enough - 8 g, and a whole bunch can weigh up to 0.6 kg.
Very early muscat
- This is a table variety that begins to delight with the first harvests as early as 95-100 days.
- The weight of a bunch ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 kg, and one berry - 4-5 g.
- Fruit color is intense, red-violet.
- The taste is very pleasant, deserves a rating of 4.5.
- The dense peel crunches pleasantly when eating berries.
- The variety is characterized by good frost resistance, and ripe berries another 2-3