The garden of the nymphs: Sardinian beekeepers

The garden of the nymphs: Sardinian beekeepers

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The garden of the nymphs

Capo Caccia, the Porto Conte Regional Natural Park, the Prigionette State Forest: it is in this wonderful landscape a few kilometers from Alghero that there is "The Garden of the Nymphs", an oasis of unspoiled nature where bees are the protagonists every day of the year. The Porto Conte district lends itself well to insect foraging as it can boast thousands of hectares of spontaneous vegetation with a prevalence of Mediterranean scrub, asphodel, eucalyptus and rosemary. The honeys produced by "Il Giardino delle Ninfe" are of excellent quality but above all unique in their kind: the beekeepers who look after the families of bees adhere to a strict internal regulation whose primary objective is the well-being of insects.

The slogan is: “Happy bees produce better honey” and with this spirit the beekeepers focus on every detail that can make the life of bees as close as possible to the idea that mother nature had foreseen. The result of this careful and passionate work is an ethical honey, produced as part of a project that does not have profit as its ultimate goal but the will to engage in concrete actions useful for restoring the balance lost in many cases between man and nature. .

The Porto Conte honey site, Alghero: www.ilgiardinodelleninfe.it

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Sardinian Academy of History of Culture and Language

WAS THE MYTHICAL "GARDEN OF THE EXPERIDS" LOCATED IN SARDINIA?

In preparing to deal with the myth of the "Garden of the Hesperides", I believe it is important to premise and specify that I consider it exclusively and totally a "legend" and furthermore I intend not to analyze its symbolic or evemeric content, but limit myself to trying to reconstruct its geographical location , that is in which land of the Mediterranean it was from the ancient Greeks to the beginning located and for what geo-naturalistic circumstance.

There is a first linguistic consideration to be made: Hesperides, in Greek Hespérhides, clearly refers to the Greek appellative hespérha "evening" = Lat. vesper. Therefore Hespérhides properly meant "Vespertine", that is "Nymphs of the evening". And in fact they were also called "Daughters of the Night", since the sun dies or sets in the West after evening and towards night. In short, the Hesperides were the "Nymphs of the evening, of the sunset or of the West".

The function of the Hesperides was to supervise, with the help of a snake, the garden of the Gods, in which a tree with golden apples grew, a gift given by Mother Earth to Hera on the occasion of her wedding with Zeus.

It must be premised that the first Greek author who mentions the Hesiodo is Hesiod (Theogonía 215 ff.), Who calls them precisely "Daughters of the Night". Now, given that Hesiod lived at the turn of the VIII-VII centuries BC, it is evident that in the search for the origin of the myth of the Hesperides we cannot go far back to that period, I would only think of decades. I intend to clarify my reference to Hesiod: I) He, around 700 BC. C., did you learn about the myth of the Garden of the Hesperides from an oral tradition? In this case we are not able to ascertain anything more II) Did he learn about the myth from a written source? In this case, we cannot go further back than the middle of the eighth century BC, a period in which the Greeks began to write using the Phoenician alphabet.

The modern historians of ancient Greece are basically in agreement on the fact that the oldest settlement of the Greeks in the central basin of the Mediterranean, i.e. in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was on the island of Ischia (Pythekoûsai), in the Gulf of Naples, where they would have allocated in 770 BC. Twenty years later, in 750, nothing would land on the coast in front of Campania and precisely in Cuma.

A few decades later, in 721/720, the Greeks would have founded their colonies of Sybaris, on the Calabrian coast of the Gulf of Taranto, and Crotone on the Calabrian coast of the Ionian Sea. Later they would gradually founded their colonies on the Ionian coast of Sicily.

It also seems that in 580/576 Greek colonists occupied the island of Lipari, in the middle of the Tyrrhenian Sea.

So, regardless of some slight difference in years and decades, modern historians all agree that the Greeks entered and settled in the Tyrrhenian Sea basically in the second half of the eighth century BC.

Well, for the Greeks who now lived on the coasts of the Tyrrhenian Sea and also of the Ionian Sea, that is, in Magna Graecia, from which land was the West made up at that time? There is no doubt about it: the West for them was made up of Sardinia. So, in my opinion, for this simple but also stringent historical-geographical consideration, the first localization of the myth of the Garden of the Hesperides was most likely carried out by the Greeks in Sardinia.

This historical-geographical consideration is joined by another of a geo-naturalistic nature: it must be considered that the concept of "garden" necessarily recalls the existence of sites suitable for the cultivation of fruit plants. Well, from this point of view Sardinia was perfectly suited to this need: the island has known and still knows the cultivation of that very characteristic and even showy citrus fruit which is the "cedar" (Citrus medica) since ancient times. , whose fruit consists of a large yellow pommel, that is, the color of gold. The Latin writer Palladio Rutilio, in his famous work Opus Agriculturae (IV 10, 16) celebrates the fertility of the territory of Neapolis (on the southern shore of the Gulf of Oristano), where he owned funds and where he successfully cultivated the cedar plant.

In this same order of ideas these Sardinian toponyms and idronym speak very clearly: Chiterru (fraction of Buddusò and surname to Budoni and Padru), which probably corresponds to the noble etr. Cethurna, Ceturna and also Italian. ancient cedar "cedar" (formerly considered to be of Etruscan origin) Cedrino, the river of the Barony Villacidro (locally Biddaxírdu, Biddexídru = Bidd '' and Xídru) = "Villa of the cedars" (chídru, cídru "cedar" from the lat. citrus sing ., but with collective value).

In the present, cedar is grown with success particularly on the east coast of the island, less exposed to the mistral, right in front of Magna Graecia, in the valleys of Baronia, Ogliastra around Tortolì and Flumendosa in Sarrabus.

It should be borne in mind that, again for the purposes of the exegesis of the "Garden of the Hesperides", some authors have referred to the "orange gardens". However, this combination must be rejected both because oranges have a red and not yellow color and therefore do not appear the color of gold, and because, as my colleague and friend Ignazio Camarda, botanist of the University of Sassari taught me, the cultivation some oranges arrived in the central Mediterranean much later than the classical era.

Finally, I point out that the myth of Hercules is also antracted in the myth of the "Garden of the Hesperides". In fact, he would have gone to the Hesperides to look for the apples of immortality. Furthermore, he would have recovered the rams of the Hesperides, stolen from them by brigands (a play on words intervened here, since the Greek mêlon means both "apple" and "ram"). Having said this, it is hardly necessary to remember that the presence of the mythical Hercules or Heracles, also identified with the Phoenician Melqart, also in ancient Sardinia, is widely documented: some places named in his honor are to be mentioned, for example Herculis insula = Asinara (Ptolemy, Pliny, Marciano Capella), the road station in Herculem mentioned in the Roman «Antonino's Itinerary» (83, 4) between Tibula (Castelsardo) and Turris (Porto Torres) and which I locate at San Michele di Plaiano (Sassari) .

But of particular importance for my purpose is the arrival (completely mythical?) In Sardinia, at the helm of Iolaus, of the fifty Thespiads, sons of Heracles, whom he had with as many daughters of Thespio (Pausanias X 17).

For these three reasons, one historical-geographical, the other geo-naturalistic and the third mythographic, it seems to me that the hypothesis is very likely that the first localization that the Greeks made of the myth of the "Giadino delle Esperidi" was for precisely in Sardinia.

But later it happened that, as the maritime horizon of the Greeks widened, especially after the foundation of their great colony of Marseille in 600 BC and its sub-colonies, the Greeks also moved their "West" and for consequently also the localization of the myth of the "Garden of the Hesperides". They moved it to the Iberian Peninsula and later even to the end of the northern coast of Africa, towards the Atlas Mountains, so much so that even the paternity of the Hesperides changed a few times, ending up being called daughters of the giant Atlas.

And I conclude: in contrast to the now infamous "Gulf of the Phoenicians", how much better would it be appropriate to call that of Orosei "Gulf of the Hesperides"?

See P. Grimal, Dictionnaire de la mytologie grecque et romaine, trans. ital. Brescia 1987 Mythology, Milan 2005, s. v. Hesperides.

See J. Bérard, La colonization grecque de l'Italie méridionale et de la Sicilie dans l'antiquité, Paris 1957, trans. ital. Magna Graecia - history of the Greek colonies of southern Italy, Turin 1963, passim M. Pittau, History of the Nuragic Sardinians, Selargius 2007, pgg. 13, 14.

See R. Zucca, Palladio and the Neapolitan territory in Sardinia, in «Quaderni Bolotanesi», 16, 1990, pg. 279 ff. For my part, however, I would exclude that the Neapolitan citrarii were from Sardinia, since those from Campania were much better known.

See C. Battisti - G. Alessio, Italian Etymological Dictionary, I-V, Florence 1950-1957, s. v.

C. Ptolemy (III 3, 4) Kaídrios. The toponym Cedrino also exists in Tuscany, near Cecina (LI) see S. Pieri, Toponymy of southern Tuscany (Fiora, Ombrone, Cècina and minor rivers valleys) and the Tuscan Archipelago, Siena 1969, pg. 174.

In general, on the presence of Heracle-Melqart in Sardinia, see A. Mastino, Storia della Sardegna antica, Nùoro 2005, pgg. 411-412 and passim.

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Sardinian honey production falls by 80%. 2020 one of the worst years for beekeepers

Coldiretti Sardegna launches the hashtag #compramielesardo.

Collapse of 80% of production and invasion of foreign honey (two out of 3 jars are imported) risk closing the Sardinian beehives. This is the alarm launched by Coldiretti Sardegna that denounces how this sector, fundamental from an environmental point of view, risks collapse since it is also almost the only one in which the remuneration of beekeepers collapses with production and launches the hashtag # buy meelesardo.

2020 to date is one of the worst years for beekeepers. In spring the honey production was almost nil. In southern Sardinia they stopped at 20% (- 80%), about 4 kg per hive compared to an average of 20 kg. To be saved, so to speak, were only some areas of central northern Sardinia and Logudoro (which represent about 15% of the Sardinian sector) where the losses stopped at 50%. This year it will be very difficult to find Sardinian orange honey since the citrus fruits in great stress due to the anomalous climate have blossomed a month in advance, without sufficient nectar secretion for harvesting. The blooms produced are mainly of Mediterranean scrub and asphodel, absent that of thistle. And it's no better in the summer. The production of eucalyptus, lifeline for beekeepers, has developed much slower this year due to the strong mistral that hit Sardinia at the moment of greatest nectar production of plants and compromised the operational capacity of bees and productive of the plant. Furthermore, the presence of psylla, a plant parasite, is canceling the nectar secretion of the plant, stopping the production at about 8 kg per hive.

In short, 2020 is one of the worst years for beekeepers, risking to equal the horribilis of 2012. The causes of the collapse of production are due to climate change. A hot and dry winter, spring frosts and the summer mistral are the cause. In these conditions the bees have little chance of collecting the nectar and the little honey produced use it as food.

Not only an economic but also an environmental problem since bees represent a relevant indicator of its health status. Their work is essential for the primary function of safeguarding biodiversity and in the work of farmers with the pollination of fruit and vegetable crops and seeds. It is estimated that a single bee typically visits around 7,000 flowers per day and it takes four million flower visits to produce one kilogram of honey. According to the FAO, 3 out of 4 food crops depend to some extent on bee pollination for yield and quality, including apples, pears, strawberries, cherries, watermelons and melons.

In addition to production, the problem is also a market problem. Honey sales are at a standstill due to a summer tourist season that has never started due to the Covid health emergency. After the growth in sales during the lockdown, the sale of honey has now stalled due to the absence of tourists and the lower spending power of Sardinians. But what affects the market above all is the presence of foreign honey blends at cheap prices, with two out of three jars of foreign origin. According to Coldiretti calculations (based on Istat data) 40% comes from Hungary and over 10% from China.

For these reasons, the 1767 beekeepers risk having to dispose of the 66,773 hives present in Sardinia. At risk are obviously the 828 professional beekeepers (939 are in self-consumption, the so-called hobbyists).

To all this is added the usual bureaucracy, an increasingly heavy burden for agricultural businesses. "About 70% of beekeepers are still waiting for compensation for the 2017 drought - recalls the president of Coldiretti Sardegna Battista Cualbu -, an unjustifiable and unacceptable slowness for companies that have been waiting for three years in absolute uncertainty. As well as other delays on law 19 of 2015 which grants contributions to beekeepers. Five months after the submission of the applications, the rankings are still not known, making one live in uncertainty and preventing beekeepers from being able to plan their business investments ".

"Beekeeping is one of the most neglected sectors despite the importance it assumes from an environmental point of view - says the director of Coldiretti Sardegna Luca Saba -. They are the first to suffer the consequences of climate change and pollution, testifying to the centrality that bees assume for the environment. They also suffer heavily from unfair competition from imports of low-quality foreign honey blends. This is why our choice is important. We buy Sardinian, we make a contribution to the environment and our economy, we choose the honey of our beekeepers, a guaranteed product of which we know the origin ".

The indication "Italy" indicates that the honey is collected entirely on the national territory. In the event that the honey comes from several countries of the European Union, the label must bear the indication "mixture of honeys originating in the EC. If, on the other hand, it comes from non-EU countries it must contain the wording "mixture of non-EC honeys", while, if it is a mix, it must be written "mixture of honeys originating and not originating in the EC".


Robinia Pseudoacacia L. - a bit of history

It is the scientific name of the tree known as Acacia. The name Robinia derives from JeanRobin, a French gardener (1550-1629) at the service of the Court of France, who was the first to introduce the plant that would later take his name in Europe. In fact, he managed to plant and sprout in Paris, in Place Saint Julien le Pauvre (which would later take the current name of Place René-Viviani - Montebello) some seeds of a plant, coming from the New World, which were were delivered by his friend John Tradescant, an Englishman from Suffolk who presented himself as a naturalist, gardener, collector and traveler. It was the year 1602. During his life Jean Robin served Henry III, Henry IV and Louis XIII.
Henry IV had great esteem for his gardener, who practiced the habit of publishing all the news and results of his botanical studies, and as a sign of gratitude he awarded him the title of "arborist, botanist of the King, curator of the Garden". The Garden of which Robin was the curator was the Garden of the Faculty of Medicine, where all the medicinal plants of the King were grown. It should be noted that the acacia, native to the Appalachian Mountains, was present throughout the North and Central American continent and it counted at least twenty different species. For Europeans it was a novelty, like all botanical species that came from the New World, such as potatoes and tomatoes.
Today the varieties in the world are much more numerous, but the one that interests us and that is present almost everywhere is the Jean Robin acacia, the one that bears the scientific name of Robinia Pseudoacacia L. in his honor. Out of habit and convenience, we will continue to call it Acacia, as the whole world does, knowing full well that we are talking about "Robinia Pseudoacacia L.". And now let's go and see the ancestor of our acacias, then:

It is not an imposing tree like oak or chestnut, nor is it that long-lived. In fact, the centuries-old age of the oldest tree in Paris that we have just seen, is an exception, as it is rare to find century-old acacia trees elsewhere. Its average life is less than a century, however it is a very robust plant that has a particularly aggressive root system, to the point of being considered a weed.
At first it spread as an ornamental garden plant, but its spread was rapid to the point of "getting out of hand", in the sense that it spread quickly on any kind of soil thanks to its extraordinary ability to multiply by natural dissemination and through the very polloniferous root system.


The garden of the nymphs: Sardinian beekeepers

THE MYTHICAL "GARDEN OF EXPERIDS"
WAS IT LOCATED IN SARDINIA?

In preparing to deal with the myth of the "Garden of the Hesperides", I believe it is important to premise and specify that I consider it exclusively and totally a "legend" and furthermore I intend not to analyze its symbolic or evemeric content, but limit myself to trying to reconstruct its geographical location , that is in which land of the Mediterranean it was from the ancient Greeks to the beginning located and for what geo-naturalistic circumstance.
There is a first linguistic consideration to be made: Hesperides, in Greek Hespérhides, clearly refers to the Greek appellative hespérha "evening" = Lat. vesper. Therefore Hespérhides properly meant "Vespertine", that is "Nymphs of the evening". And in fact they were also called "Daughters of the Night", since the sun dies or sets in the West after evening and towards night. In short, the Hesperides were the "Nymphs of the evening, of the sunset or of the West".
The function of the Hesperides was to guard, with the help of a snake, the garden of the Gods, in which a tree with golden apples grew, a gift given by Mother Earth to Hera on the occasion of her wedding with Zeus.
It must be premised that the first Greek author who mentions the Hesiodo is Hesiod (Theogonía 215 ff.), Who calls them precisely "Daughters of the Night". Now, given that Hesiod lived at the turn of the VIII-VII centuries BC, it is evident that in the search for the origin of the myth of the Hesperides we cannot go far back to that period, I would only think of decades. I intend to clarify my reference to Hesiod: I) He, around 700 BC. C., did you come to know the myth of the Garden of the Hesperides from an oral tradition? In this case we are not able to ascertain anything more II) Did he learn about the myth from a written source? In this case, we cannot go further back than the middle of the eighth century BC, a period in which the Greeks began to write using the Phoenician alphabet.
The modern historians of ancient Greece are basically in agreement on the fact that the oldest settlement of the Greeks in the central basin of the Mediterranean, i.e. in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was on the island of Ischia (Pythekoûsai), in the Gulf of Naples, where they would have allocated in 770 BC. Twenty years later, in 750, nothing would land on the coast in front of Campania and precisely in Cuma.
A few decades later, in 721/720, the Greeks would have founded their colonies of Sybaris, on the Calabrian coast of the Gulf of Taranto, and Crotone on the Calabrian coast of the Ionian Sea. Later they would gradually founded their colonies on the Ionian coast of Sicily.
It also seems that in 580/576 Greek colonists occupied the island of Lipari, in the middle of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Therefore, regardless of some slight difference in years and decades, modern historians are all in agreement that the Greeks entered and settled in the Tyrrhenian basically in the second half of the eighth century BC.
Well, for the Greeks who now lived on the coasts of the Tyrrhenian Sea and also of the Ionian Sea, that is, in Magna Graecia, from which land was the West made up at that time? There is no doubt about it: the West for them was made up of Sardinia. So, in my opinion, for this simple but also stringent historical-geographical consideration, the first localization of the myth of the Garden of the Hesperides was most likely carried out by the Greeks in Sardinia.
This historical-geographical consideration is joined by another of a geo-naturalistic nature: it must be considered that the concept of "garden" necessarily recalls the existence of sites suitable for the cultivation of fruit plants. Well, from this point of view Sardinia was perfectly suited to this need: the island has known and still knows the cultivation of that very characteristic and even showy citrus fruit which is the "cedar" (Citrus medica) since ancient times. , whose fruit consists of a large yellow pommel, that is, the color of gold. The Latin writer Palladio Rutilio, in his famous work Opus Agriculturae (IV 10, 16) celebrates the fertility of the territory of Neapolis (on the southern shore of the Gulf of Oristano), where he owned funds and where he successfully cultivated the cedar plant.
In this same order of ideas these Sardinian toponyms and idronym speak very clearly: Chiterru (fraction of Buddusò and surname to Budoni and Padru), which probably corresponds to the noble etr. Cethurna, Ceturna and also Italian. ancient cederno В «cedroВ» (already envisaged as of Etruscan origin) Cedrino, the river of the Barony Villacidro (locally Biddaxírdu, Biddexídru = Bidd '' and Xídru) = "Villa of the cedars" (chídru, cídru "cedar" from the lat. citrus sing., but with collective value).
In the present, cedar is grown with success particularly on the east coast of the island, less exposed to the mistral, right in front of Magna Graecia, in the valleys of Baronia, Ogliastra around Tortolì and Flumendosa in Sarrabus.
It should be borne in mind that, again for the purposes of the exegesis of the "Garden of the Hesperides", some authors have referred to the "orange gardens". However, this combination must be rejected both because oranges have a red and not yellow color and therefore do not appear the color of gold, and because, as my colleague and friend Ignazio Camarda, botanist of the University of Sassari taught me, the cultivation some oranges arrived in the central Mediterranean much later than the classical era.
Finally, I point out that the myth of Hercules is also antracted in the myth of the "Garden of the Hesperides". In fact, he would have gone to the Hesperides to look for the apples of immortality. Furthermore, he would have recovered the rams of the Hesperides, stolen from them by brigands (a play on words intervened here, since the Greek mêlon means both "apple" and "ram"). That said, it is hardly necessary to remember that the presence of the mythical Hercules or Heracles, also identified with the Phoenician Melqart, also in ancient Sardinia, is widely documented: some places named in his honor are to be mentioned, for example the Herculis insula = Asinara (Ptolemy, Pliny, Marciano Capella), the road station in Herculem mentioned in the Roman «Antonino's Itinerary» (83, 4) between Tibula (Castelsardo) and Turris (Porto Torres) and which I locate at San Michele di Plaiano (Sassari) .
But of particular importance for my purpose is the arrival (completely mythical?) In Sardinia, at the helm of Iolaus, of the fifty Thespiads, sons of Heracles, whom he had with as many daughters of Thespio (Pausania X 17).
For these three reasons, one historical-geographical, the other geo-naturalistic and the third mythographic, it seems to me that the hypothesis is very likely that the first localization that the Greeks made of the myth of the “Gadin of the Hesperidesв was for the precisely in Sardinia.
But later it happened that, as the maritime horizon of the Greeks widened, especially after the foundation of their great colony of Marseille in 600 BC and its sub-colonies, the Greeks also moved their "West" and for consequently also the localization of the myth of the "Garden of the Hesperides". They moved it to the Iberian Peninsula and later even to the end of the northern coast of Africa, towards the Atlas Mountains, so much so that even the paternity of the Hesperides changed a few times, ending up being called daughters of the giant Atlas.

See P. Grimal, Dictionnaire de la mytologie grecque et romaine, trad. ital. Brescia 1987 Mythology, Milan 2005, s. v. Hesperides.
See J. BГ © rard, The Greek colonization of l'Italie mГ © ridionale et de la Sicilie dans l'antiquitГ ©, Paris 1957, trans. ital. Magna Grecia - history of the Greek colonies of southern Italy, Turin 1963, passim M. Pittau, History of the Nuragic Sardinians, Selargius 2007, pp. 13, 14.
See R. Zucca, Palladio and the Neapolitan territory in Sardinia, in В «Bolotanesi QuaderniВ», 16, 1990, pg. 279 ff. For my part, however, I would exclude that the citrarii Neapolitani they were from Sardinia, since those from Campania were much better known.
See C. Battisti - G. Alessio, Italian Etymological Dictionary, I-V, Florence 1950-1957, s. v.
C. Ptolemy (III 3, 4) KaГdrios. The toponym Cedrino it also exists in Tuscany, near Cecina (LI) see S. Pieri, Toponymy of southern Tuscany (Fiora, Ombrone, CГЁcina and minor rivers valleys) and the Tuscan Archipelago, Siena 1969, pg. 174.
In general, on the presence of Heracle-Melqart in Sardinia see A. Mastino, History of ancient Sardinia, Nooro 2005, pgg. 411-412 and passim.


Francesco Saba Sardi - The Phanes and the thousand renaissance

All rights reserved © Archivio Francesco Saba Sardi

In schools of all levels and reliability, it is mostly taught that there was only one Renaissance in which classical antiquity would have been rediscovered - a "Lazarus resurrect" - but above all in which there was no hesitation in rewriting history ascertained at the time, proclaiming in short that the sun rose for the first time in the early morning of the Golden Age.

The Renaissance, according to the aforementioned schools, would have been all characterized by lucidity and belonging to the "right" rules: perspective, rationalizing Weltanschauung, imitation of truth - that which today we would call "mirror art" - and still obedience to imperatives of commissions and therefore arts in the direct service of power.

The thousand renaissance we are talking about here, and let us call them re-renaissance, are articulated in the course of events.

But even then, during the supposedly unique Renaissance, and even more and indeed above all later, when the period thus understood and decreed seemed to degenerate into Mannerism and the loss of the compass of logos, there was no lack of right-thinking people who saw it as an expression of perverted courts in which one practiced daggers and poisons, and indulged in other "monstrosities". For example, the German scholar L. C. Lemke, author of a Contribution to the history of literature and narrative poetry in Italy, Leipzig 1855, in which he denounced the substantial "monstrosity" of the "pagan" bearers of the Renaissance.

It is true that even in Italy, starting at least from the fifteenth century, there was no lack of deprecators, in the lead the Church with its Indexes of prohibited books and its multiple material and spiritual sanctions. The result was that the Renaissance was full of "cursed books", indeed, perhaps such was the greater part of the publishing production at least after the Council of Trent and the ecclesiastical ax leaded to decapitate the artistic invention and to prepare a future prescriptively centered on what it has become the Speech of the West.

Si è così inaugurata l’applicazione sistematica della censura e dell’autocensura, questa dettata da obbligatorie peccaminosità. Condizione della quale ancora oggi subiamo le deprecabili conseguenze, in primo luogo la scomparsa o quasi della produzione letteraria che abbia un qualche contenuto erotico e che sia di qualità, e il contemporaneo trionfo della pornografia di bassa lega.

Dunque, accanto al Rinascimento della logico-discorsività, della letteratura che, come vuole Cartesio con Aristotele et alii, faceva proprio il principio di non contraddizione e proclamava la necessità di una – impossibile – sintesi tra Discorso e poiesis: accanto a questo unico Rinascimento, accadeva e accade tuttora, e chissà quante altre volte accadrà, che quando la Parola, che è originaria proprio perché non ha origine, ed è la struttura del mitico, di un Altro intendo la Scrittura che non risponde alla Zeit, il tempo degli orologi, della sempre rettilinea freccia temporanea, ma che contiene in sé Tempus, il ritmo insito nella Parola stessa: orbene, ogni qual volta essa è stata sopraffatta dalle parole della quotidianità, la Parola-Phanes è riapparsa e c’è stato, e c’è, uno dei mille rinascimenti. E dunque l’intollerabilità di una visione del mondo che risponda a un registro ordinale, dove forzatamente tout se tient e dove tutto risponda alle catene delle cause e degli effetti. E noi si continui a vivere dentro la quadradità di stanze, case, città, metropoli, nazioni.

A codeste contestazioni del Rinascimento come unicum e anch’esso quadratiforme, già allora, nel pieno trionfo del Discorso occidentale, si sono date reazioni, altrettanti NO opposti all’unicità e universalità di un mondo monodimensionale, santificato, sacralizzato, incontrovertibile.

Mi limito ad alcuni esempi di quello che è stato chiamato l’Antirinascimento ,(titolo di una ben nota opera di Eugenio Battisti del 1962) ma che in effetti meriterebbe la definizione di Pararinascimento, in quanto del Rinascimento inteso come unico ha conservato il rispetto almeno dei fondamentali principi.

Fra i testi e le opere artistiche pararinascimentali, ecco in primo luogo l’Hypnerotomachia Poliphiliormai universalmente attribuita al frate Francesco Colonna, e la cui prima edizione, o almeno presuntamene tale, è del 1499. Un lungo romanzo? Ammettiamolo, a patto che del termine romanzo si abbia un’accettabile cognizione. Piuttosto un testo di cui si può riassumere la trama, premesso però che si ha a che fare con una costruzione antidinamica di una lingua interamente inventata, anche se in apparenza è una favella italiana latineggiante. La quale non rispetta la Zeit, il tempo degli orologi e della freccia inesorabilmente rettilinea, ignora cioè lo svolgersi, il nascere e il morire degli elementi del Discorso, ma è più opportunamente assimilabile alla pittura come composizione di colori, luci e ombre: di zone spesso non contigue, non articolabili in precisi paragrafi. E dove tutte le cose umane, tutti gli accadimenti, si presentano con la compartecipazione dell’onirico, al punto da far richiamare alla mente il concetto, chiaro agli antropologi, del dreamtime degli aborigeni australiani.

La trama, eccola: smarritosi inizialmente nella selva, cioè nella dimenticanza dell’inerte Hypnos, Poliphilo incontra le ninfe e viene ammaestrato da Eleuterillide, il libero arbitrio. La scelta del regno di Venere appaga Poliphilo, il tutt’amoroso cercatore, ma la sua non è un’iniziazione dell’anima al suo destino finale, bensì il ritrovamento, o meglio l’invenzione di Polia l’amata con la sua decisione di votarsi a Diana, la Cacciatrice. A questo punto Poliphilo, il dormiente, preda di Hypnos, si sveglia e si ritrova nella sua stanza. Ha optato, nell’incoscienza, per l’amore, per l’Eros anziché per la timida salvezza.

Trama elementare, come si vede, ma ciò che conta è che questa è un’opera narrativa-emblematica tutta fondata sul linguaggio. Non più sul contenuto espositivo. Opera di Scrittura, non di Letteratura. Forse l’esempio più clamoroso del distacco del «romanzo» dalla tradizione e l’invenzione di una poiesis nuova (intentendo per poiesis l’attualeproduzione artistica).

E, proprio per questo, «libro maledetto»: opera phanica, se mi è permesso ricorrere a questa definizione.

Nella categoria del pararinascimento, quello delle rinnovantisi apparizioni del Phanes, rientra di pieno diritto anche il Giardino di Bomarzo, progettato dal Vignola attorno al1520 insieme con il palazzo Orsini del quale è una dipendenza. Le enormi sculture ornamentali che compongono il giardino, e sono mostri, animali di fantasia, case fintamente crollanti con portali in foggia di fuaci dentute, sono allegorie trasparenti o enigmi indecifrabili che compongono la materializzazione di un sogno, che è occultistico, certo, ma che è soprattutto una lingua Altra, tesa non già a esprimere l’arduamente esprimibile, bensì a inesprimere l’inesprimibile. Poiché il Phanes non dice, il Phanes illumina. Appare, ed ecco allora la torre degli Orsini a dominare il globo terrestre sorretto da un gigantesco batrace, ecco la personificazione dell’Oceano sotto le sembianze di una donna a gambe divaricate coperte di scaglie.

Il signore di Bomarzo, Gianfranco Vicino Orsini, morì nel 1547 senza aver potuto condurre a termine la sua opera, ma lasciando un’iscrizione murale col blasone degli Orsini, che insieme chiarisce e oscura: «Che Menfi e tutte le altre meraviglie del mondo cedono il passo al bosco sacro che somiglia solo a se stesso».

Oggi, perché no?, Bomarzo è aperto alla curiosità (e alle devastazioni) del turismo.

L’anti o pararinascimento ha lasciato un retaggio? Sì, almeno nella poiesis di Niki de Saint-Phalle che ha trovato espressione nel suo grandioso Giardino dei Tarocchi ispirato a Bomarzo. Perché il phanes fa di continuo capolino: dalle fauci di uno Zeus o delle altre reificazioni che altrettanto continuamente cercano di inghiottirlo e introiettarlo senza farsene fecondare, come invece fa, stando almeno alla teogonia di Esiodo, l’antico signore dell’Olimpo.

Altri “libri maledetti” rinascimentali? Accanto ai fin troppo noti, e ormai banali, canti carnascialeschi di Lorenzo il Magnifico, perché no, al di là della riduzione del mondo alla razionalità produttiva persino l’opera del padovano Angelo Beolco, in arte Ruzzante (da ruzzare, scherzare)? Che certo, fu esplicitamente al servizio di Alivise Cornaro, e tuttavia, da attore e autore, si fece portavoce degli sdegni, risentiti e polemici, mordenti, a volte quasi ribelli o almeno rivoltosi, della plebe contadina. Ma più per finta, mai del tutto sul serio: scrittore come era formatosi ai margini di una élite aristocratica, e per conto di essa beffatore, nella prima metà del Cinquecento ricalcò le rozzezze del Menego, del Reduce, della Bilora. Tuttavia in questi suoi ricalchi dei modi di parlare e di concepire la vita dei sottomessi c’è già alcunché di nuovo, un’involontaria, inconsapevole contestazione della lingua del potere. Ruzzante sospeso sullo spartiacque, sul sottile diaframma tra le gergalità dei dominati e quelle dei dominanti.

Che cosa si può dunque intendere quando si parla di mille rinascimenti?

La riaffermazione della libertà della Parola, del mitico: la reiterata scoperta che la Parola è originaria proprio perché non ha origine ed è impossibile ridurla a realtà extralinguistiche. Inaspettatamente, emerge. Appare. È il Phanes.


Parchi della Sardegna: tour fra la natura selvaggia

Una guida alle migliori oasi naturali della Regione

La Sardegna è un concentrato di tesori ambientali famosi in tutto il mondo. Un mare limpido e cristallino, grandi insenature, spiagge bianchissime, coste rocciose, campi sterminati, sistemi montuosi e poi ancora stagni, boschi rigogliosi e alberi millenari. Un'isola che sa stupire.

Fra tutte queste meraviglie, scopriamo i parchi più belli della Sardegna, un'immersione nella natura più pura e selvaggia, un contatto vero con la Terra. Scegli una vacanza in questo posto meraviglioso e non perderti l'occasione di visitare le sue oasi naturali. Nella regione esistono tre parchi nazionali, vari parchi regionali, oasi e riserve.

Un'apoteosi di natura, ideale per un viaggio di coppia o con i tuoi bambini.

Parco Nazionale del Gennargentu e del Golfo di Orosei

Si estende nell'area montuosa tra le province di Nuoro e l'Ogliastra ed è il parco più grande della regione. In larga parte viene identificato come il territorio della Barbagia con paesaggi unici e suggestivi. Comprende ambienti variegati passando da spiagge e falesie sul mare, ai gran canyon, vallate sterminate e grandi cime, le più alte della Sardegna.

Puoi visitare il parco con le guide oppure a bordo del Trenino Verde di Arbatax, per un viaggio rilassante e affascinante. Puoi fare escursionismo alla scoperta di valli, sorgenti e grotte, esplorare le cavità marine del Golfo di Orosei e poi fermati sulle sue superbe spiagge o calette. E se sei in vacanza con i bambini divertiti con loro a scoprire le tante e rare specie che popolano il territorio.

Parco Nazionale dell'arcipelago della Maddalena

In questa zona ti addentri in un vero e proprio paradiso, un'area naturale geo-marina. L'arcipelago della Maddalena comprende isole e isolotti che occupano una superficie di circa 50 chilometri. Il suo parco incontaminato è considerato tra i più belli non solo della regione ma di tutta Europa. Una riserva che include spiagge granitiche dai fondali trasparenti perfette per fare immersioni, in un paesaggio roccioso che si staglia in mezzo alla natura verde e rigogliosa. Oltre alle attività marittime puoi camminare e fare escursioni, visitare il centro della Maddalena o l'isola di Caprara che ospita la casa di Garibaldi in cui visse fino alla morte.

Parco Nazionale dell'Asinara

Comprende l'isola dell'Asinara e una zona marina, ed è stato fondato nel 1997. Il parco tutela un piccolo territorio che si trova nella punta nord dell'isola. Una vacanza di assoluta bellezza, dove puoi scoprire le innumerevoli specie di fiori, alcune assolutamente rare, e gli animali che vi abitano, tra cui l'asino albino che dà il nome all'isola. Inoltre puoi fare trekking, visite guidate, immersioni o ammirare le piccole spiagge e le alte falesie.

Parco naturale regionale Molentargius-Saline

Tra i più importanti della provincia di Cagliari questo ampio e umido territorio ha un immenso valore naturalistico. Istituito nel 1999, si distingue per la presenza di bacini di varia salinità che permettono a differenti e caratteristici uccelli di sostare e dimorare nella zona, tra i tanti si riconoscono i fenicotteri rosa. E la sera non perderti il suggestivo spettacolo del tramonto.

Parco naturale regionale di Porto Conte

A nord di Alghero, nella provincia di Sassari, si sviluppa questo meraviglioso parco, conosciuto anche come il parco delle ninfe. È riparato dai promontori Punta Giglio e Capo Caccia che donano scorci indescrivibili. Puoi perderti camminando nella vasta foresta de Le Prigionette dove ammirare varie specie di flora e fauna protette, visitare le Grotte di Nettuno e il Lago di Baratz.

Parco Naturale Regionale del Limbara

È una riserva naturale che si trova nella provincia di Olbia-Tempio. Immersa nella catena montuosa del Limbara dove si incontrano grandi foreste e vallate enormi circondate da rocce di granito dimora di picchi, martore, lepri e cinghiali. E per non rimpiangere le splendide spiagge e il mare cristallino dell'isola recati in cima alla montagna e gustati una vista unica a 360° su tutta la Sardegna.

Parco Naturale Regionale dell'Oasi di Tepilora

Situato nel comune di Bitti, in provincia di Nuoro, è uno dei nuovi parchi della regione. In questa zona ci sono bellezze naturalistiche a dislivelli che variano dai 68 ai 979 metri di altura da dove puoi godere della tipica fauna della macchia mediterranea. Munisciti di scarpe comode e macchina fotografica per immortalare i momenti migliori.

In paese poi, non puoi perderti le delizie locali come il pecorino, il pane carasau e le salsicce.

Preparati a respirare l'aria autentica della Sardegna e della sua natura. Il nostro consiglio, se pianifichi un viaggio di questo tipo, è evitare il mese di agosto, o comunque i periodi più caldi. Così potrai immergerti nei paesaggi sardi, con il conforto di un clima piacevole.


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