All lovers of decorating an apartment with unusual plants should pay attention to the aucuba. The plant does not lose its decorative appearance even in winter. It cannot be called unpretentious, but subject to the basic rules of home care, the flower will delight you with its beautiful appearance for a long time.
Description of the origin and appearance of the plant
This extraordinary plant is called the "sausage tree". Probably, the one who first named the aucuba was very hungry, and the leaves reminded him of a thin sliced sausage.
Aukuba is believed to be native to Japan. But it is also found in northern India, eastern Tibet and the Korea Peninsula. In nature, these tree-like plants reach heights of 2.5 meters or more. Aucuba is very shade-tolerant (with the exception of variegated varieties) and grows as an undergrowth in shaded subtropical forests.
Aucuba is a very shade-tolerant plant
The secretive Japanese have long obstructed the export of the Aucuba from the country. But in the 18th century, the first specimen reached Europe. Unfortunately, it turned out to be a female plant, and since the aucuba is dioecious, pollination did not take place without a male specimen, and the fruits turned out to be seedless. A few decades later, the Englishman Fortune got hold of a pollinator, and since then the aucuba has been conquering countries with warm climates. The beauty of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and Crimea has lived in. But in other regions of Russia, aucuba is grown exclusively as a houseplant.
Aukuba can be found in Crimea and on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus
The plant belongs to the Cornel family. There are 10 types of aucuba, but only 2 of them are common in home floriculture.
Aucuba is an open field evergreen shrub with upright branching shoots. Leaves are leathery with a shiny surface. The shape is elongated lanceolate or oval. The edges of the lamina are serrated or almost smooth. The color, depending on the variety, is monochromatic or motley - the green background is decorated with bright splashes of yellow. It is the leaves that are the main decoration of the aucuba.
The flowers are small and unattractive. Collected in a large bundle. Fruits in the form of red or orange berries.
Aucuba flowers and berries are unattractive
Aukubu cannot be called a difficult plant for home breeding, but it is simply necessary to follow some rules. Due to its ability to develop well in insufficiently lit rooms and at the same time not lose decorativeness, it is often used to decorate darkened corridors and offices.
Aucuba is able to cope with air purification from harmful substances in the room. It helps people who are engaged in mental work to concentrate. The plant is believed to help create an atmosphere of friendliness and cohesion in the family.
Types and varieties of aucuba: Japanese and not only
Since the aucuba attracted flower growers, the breeders happily set to work, thanks to which we have many varieties with different colors.
|Types and varieties||Description|
|Aucuba Himalayan||The leaves are elongated, lanceolate. The edges of a dark green colored plate are scalloped or whole-cut. The apex is pointed. The plant is dioecious. The flowers are small. The berries are coral red.|
|Aukuba Japanese||More popular than the Himalayan. Opposite leathery leaves have an oblong-oval shape. The edges are jagged. The green background of the leaf plate is elegantly decorated with yellow spots. A dioecious plant. Small flowers are gathered in a panicle. The berries are mostly orange in color.|
|Aucuba Dentata||The leaves are rounded with pronounced denticles along the edge. The leaf blade is green, shiny.|
|Aucuba Variegata||Large leaves are colored juicy green. Yellow-golden spots are scattered all over the background of the leaf plate.|
|Aucuba Picturata||The plant with dark green leaves is decorated with a bright yellow center and small yellow spots along the edges of the leaf blade.|
|Aucuba Gold Dust||Oblong yellow leaf blade interspersed with bright green.|
Various types and varieties of indoor flower in the photo
Table: optimal conditions for growing aucuba
|Location||Place a flower with variegated leaves on the west or east window. Place the aukuba with solid leaves on the north side. In summer, it is advisable to take out to the balcony or garden. In the fresh air, the plant feels very well being in partial shade, in a place protected from drafts and rain.|
|Lighting||It is better to grow aucuba in bright, but diffused light. Prolonged exposure to too bright light will discolor the plate, and direct sunlight can cause burns.|
|Air humidity||It is not a critical indicator for the survival of the flower, but regular (every 2-3 days) spraying has a positive effect on the appearance of the plant.|
|Temperature||Aucuba doesn't like heat. A moderate temperature of 20 ° C will delight her in the summer. Too high temperatures will lead to loss of decorativeness and aging.|
Planting and transplanting
For planting the aucuba, we opt for loose and light soil. It is based on:
- 2 parts of sod land;
- 1 piece of leafy land;
- 1 part coarse sand.
Here you can also add 1 part of humus and peat land.
The pot should not be much larger than the root system... Large plants are best planted immediately in tubs, where it will be enough to periodically change the top layer of soil to a new one.
Larger specimens of aucuba are best planted in tubs.
The presence of drainage is a prerequisite for planting. Annually in the spring, only young specimens of aucuba are transplanted under 5 years of age. Adult plants are subjected to the procedure much less often, about 1 time in 3 years, and even then as needed, when the root system is cramped in the old container.
In some sources, there is information about planting a young aucuba immediately in a large pot, so as not to unnecessarily disturb the plant due to a too fragile root system. In such cases, it is imperative to lay a layer of drainage in a larger volume on the bottom of the pot in order to prevent soil acidification.
Transplant step by step
- Preparing the pot. We put a layer of drainage on the bottom, and add a little earth on top.
- We transplant Aukuba exclusively by the transshipment method. To do this, slightly wrinkle the plastic pot, tilt it to one side and shake out the earthen ball along with the roots.
- Place the plant in a new container and add the remaining substrate.
- Watering the aucuba.
- After watering, drain the drained water from the pallet, and place the plant in a permanent place.
Aucuba has too fragile roots, so you need to be very careful when transplanting.
Caring for the aucuba consists in watering, feeding, forming a bush and ensuring optimal conditions during the dormant period.
In the spring and summer, the aucuba is watered abundantly, but not excessively. Before the next moistening, the top layer of the earth must definitely dry out. The water accumulated in the sump after irrigation is poured out. Compliance with these simple rules will save the plant from frequent rotting of the root system. Prolonged overdrying of the soil can lead to leaf fall. Watering is reduced in autumn and winter.
Timely and correctly fertilized aucuba will delight you with beautiful leaves with bright colors. Top dressing is applied once a week from March to early September. For this, complex fertilizers are used for ornamental deciduous plants, but once a month the aucuba can be pampered with organic matter - diluted slurry.
A properly fertilized plant will delight you with bright colors
Pruning leaves and shoots
Young plants are advised to pinch the tops of the shoots to stimulate branching. Further formation of a lush and dense crown consists of regular shortening of the overgrown shoots. The procedure is carried out in the spring, and the material remaining after pruning is perfect for rooting.
Blooms from February to April. But in indoor conditions, this is a rare occurrence.
Aucuba flowers are small and inconspicuous
During dormancy, all physiological processes of the plant are suspended, growth slows down or stops altogether. During the period from October to February, the aucuba should rest in a slightly heated room. The temperature at this time is kept under control within the range of + 8–12 ° С. We water it very carefully so that the earth has the opportunity to dry out well, we stop feeding.
Errors in care and illness: causes and elimination - table
|The leaves are covered with black spots.||Waterlogging of the soil.||Allow the substrate to dry in the upper layer before the next watering.|
|The edges of the leaves dry out.||Insufficient hydration.|
|Leaves become smaller, new shoots grow thin.||Lack of nutrients.||Feed the aucuba by alternating organic with mineral fertilizers.|
|Varieties with variegated leaves lose their yellow pigment.||Lack of light and power.|
|The leaf blade becomes pale.||The light is too bright.||Shade the flower or rearrange it to a different location.|
|Leaves fall en masse.||Humidity too low.|
|Aucuba grows in one direction.||Uneven lighting.||Provide the aucuba with even lighting or turn it from time to time towards light.|
|Root rot as a result of improper watering and keeping at low temperatures.|
Pests: how to detect and what to do with them - table
|Shield||Yellowing and falling leaves.||Processing with Aktellik or Fitoverm (according to the instructions).||Give the plant a warm shower.|
|Thrips||Small winged insects with an elongated black, brown or brown body.|
What pests look like - photo gallery
Reproduction of aucuba
At home, aucuba reproduces very easily and quickly using cuttings. You can also try growing a flower from seeds, but this method is quite time consuming.
Rooting time is from March to May, from August to September. Cuttings can be used after pruning. The apical stalk of last year's growth should have 2 - 3 adult leaves. Leaves can be shortened by 2/3 of the height so that as much nutrients as possible are supplied to the young growth.
- Cut cuttings are placed in wet sandy or peat-sandy soil. Rooting temperature + 20-22 ° С.
- Landings are covered with a bag or transparent lid. The greenhouse will need to be ventilated and moisture maintained inside it.
- Cuttings that have built up a root mass are transplanted into separate small (6–8 cm) pots in a suitable substrate.
Leaves on aukba cuttings are slightly pruned
Seed propagation is not a very common method. All because of the expiration date of the seeds. They are best sown almost immediately after harvest. Germination time is very long, and a plant grown from seeds will not meet varietal qualities. The landing stages are as follows:
- The seeds are sown in a wet peat-sand mixture.
- The plantings are covered with a plastic bag to create greenhouse conditions.
- The temperature in the greenhouse is constantly maintained at +21 ° C, the soil is ventilated and sprayed.
- After the emergence of three leaves at the seedlings, the seedlings are transplanted into separate pots.
Reproduction of aucuba - video
Reviews about growing aucuba
Once appearing in Europe, the aucuba managed to win fans among amateur flower growers. This plant is also good because in a mild climate it grows with pleasure on the street, decorating the cozy corners of the gardens. In the house, the aucuba brings not only aesthetic pleasure, but also brings harmony to family relationships.
Cineraria: we grow at home, watering, transplanting and soil features
Indoor cineraria is one of the varieties of this perennial flowering plant, which is often grown as an annual, blooms for a long time and abundantly. The homeland of the flower is the Canary Islands, but it feels great at home, subject to the rules of care.
Room cineraria - home care
Being a native of warm countries, the indoor cineraria flower requires good care and the right conditions for keeping.
- Air temperature. Temperature is of great importance for room cineraria. She does not like heat, so it is important to keep her cool - no higher than 20 ° C. Growing at a temperature of 10-15 ° C is ideal.
- Lighting. Indoor cineraria loves an abundance of sunlight, but it should be diffused - direct rays will not benefit it.
- Air humidity. The flower loves high humidity, but does not tolerate spraying.
- The soil. The ideal substrate for cineraria should consist of 1 part peat and 0.5 part compost, you can add bark or perlite. Fertilizing the plant is not required - such soil contains all the necessary nutrients.
Cineraria - how to water?
Cineraria requires constant soil moisture, watering should be regular. But you should do it carefully - she does not like getting water on the foliage.
And remember that both dry soil and excessively wet soil are equally harmful to her. On average, you need to water the flower about once a week at high humidity, preventing the soil from drying out.
Rain or settled water should be used for this.
Cineraria - transplant after purchase
Indoor cineraria is often grown as an annual plant and thrown away after flowering, but if you want it to bloom again, you need a transplant, which many produce immediately after purchase.
This can be done in the spring or summer after the end of the flowering period. To do this, drainage is done in the pot, soil is applied, a flower is planted. Weekly after transplanting, the plant is fed with a universal fertilizer for flowers.
If you bought blooming cineraria, you should not transplant it right away.
Cineraria - reproduction
Having mastered the rules of successfully growing a flower and caring for it, many ask the following question on this topic - how does cineraria multiply? There are two ways - propagation by seeds and cuttings, each of them has its own pros and cons.
Reproduction using cuttings is faster, requires less effort, but even if all the rules are followed, the result may turn out to be zero.
Growing from seeds is a longer process, requires a lot of time and attention, but guarantees almost one hundred percent success.
Cineraria - propagation by cuttings
Indoor cineraria does not stop growing in winter, but some of its shoots may become too long, with their help we can reproduce by cuttings.
Young shoots are carefully cut, treated with rooting preparations and immediately planted in a prepared pot with a substrate.
It is difficult to predict the survival rate of the cuttings - it can either suddenly dry out for some unknown reason, subject to all the rules of care, and quickly begin to grow.
Another way that gives us the chances of survival is much higher is reproduction by layering. This is done as follows:
- We prepare a separate pot of soil, we moisten the soil well, put it in the immediate vicinity of the flower.
- He chooses the longest shoot, tilts it to the pot with the substrate, carefully fixes it with special aluminum brackets.
- Sprinkle soil on the branch of the shoot in the pot.
- After some time, the shoot takes root in a new pot, rooting takes place, and it can be cut off from the mother flower.
Indoor cineraria - growing from seeds
There is nothing difficult in how to grow cineraria from seeds, but you should be patient, as this process takes time. Sowing at home can be done absolutely at any time of the year, but remember that flowering will occur no earlier than six months after planting. For example, if you plant cineraria in June, it will bloom around New Year's.
How to plant cineraria with seeds?
Cineraria germinates and grows very quickly, planting with seeds is done as follows:
- Seeds are sown in trays with soil mixture, evenly distributed and sprinkled with a layer of substrate, then watered. You do not need to prepare them for planting in advance.
- After planting, it is important to cover the tray with cling film to create a greenhouse environment for the seeds.
- The soil should not be allowed to dry out - it should be watered daily.
- After 2-3 weeks, seed shoots appear, from this moment they no longer need shelter, and the film can be removed.
- As the seedlings grow, it is important to thin out so that the distance between them is at least 2-3 cm. Otherwise, the root system will not be able to form.
- When the indoor small cineraria already has 2-3 leaves, it can be transplanted into a separate pot.
Cineraria wilted - what to do?
Indoor cineraria is a favorite delicacy of many pests, including fungi, its predisposition to disease is one of the reasons why many people prefer not to plant it again. If you see that indoor cineraria has wilted, most likely it is affected by pests. Among the many diseases, the flower is very susceptible to the following:
- Gray rot. Rot infestation is possible if, during watering, water often gets on the stems and leaves. The flower is transplanted and treated with special preparations against rot, the affected shoots are removed.
- Alternaria. The main symptom is light brown spots appearing on the leaves with a dark border. Diseases such as rust and powdery mildew have similar symptoms. They are treated with fungicides.
- Pests - aphid, whitefly, butterfly. This problem is the easiest to recognize, and insecticides are used to treat it.
If you notice that indoor cineraria has wilted, the first step is to try to identify the disease and start appropriate treatment. But the problem is that the flower is very unstable to diseases - you need to act very quickly, literally on the same day as you discovered that not everything is in order with the plant. If you delay starting treatment, there is a high risk of losing the flower.
Botanical description of the plant
Ficus Benjamin (lat.Ficus benjamina) - a species of plants from the genus Ficus of the Mulberry family. An evergreen tree or shrub that grows in the wild up to 20-30 m in height. Distributed in India, China, Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and northern Australia.
Ficus Benjamin leaves are glossy, smooth, thinly leathery, oblong-oval with a pointed apex, 6-13 cm long and 2-6 cm wide. The arrangement of leaves on the branches is opposite, the leaves are formed in the same plane. The edge of the sheet is full-edged. The venation is reticulate, the central vein is poorly expressed, with 8-12 pairs of lateral veins. The petiole is about 2 cm.
The bark is gray with sparse brown streaks. The crown is wide, the branches drooping. Ficus Benjamin - syconia - round or oblong, paired, up to 2 cm in diameter, red or orange, inedible.
Japanese aukuba ("sausage tree", "golden tree") at home
Japanese Aucuba (Aucuba japonica) called the "golden tree" or "sausage tree". This elegant dioecious evergreen belongs to the family Cornelian cherries (Cornaceae)... Japan is considered its homeland, in nature it grows in the south of Korea, the southern part of China. For a long time the Japanese interfered with the export of the "golden tree" from the country. Therefore, the Japanese aucuba came to European countries with a mild climate only by the beginning of the 18th century. Unfortunately, it was a female plant that bloomed but did not bear fruit. Later English botanist-traveler Robert Fortune (1812 - 1880) managed to bring female and male Aucubus, making it possible not only to grow, but also to select the best specimens for further reproduction.
There are many yellow spots, strokes and dots on the green leaves of aucuba japonica
In many European countries, Aucuba japonica grows well in gardens and open-air parks. It also exists in our south. In the Moscow region, this plant is grown only as an indoor plant. You cannot leave him outside for the winter.
In warm France, Japanese aucuba grows into huge bushes.
Description of Japanese aucuba
Is everyone guessing why the Japanese aukuba is often called "sausage tree" or "golden tree"? They do not eat it, the bush does not look like sausage either. But the shape and color of a shiny leathery sheet with a jagged or almost smooth edge vaguely resembles thin slices of sausage. In good conditions, many yellow spots and dots form on the sheets. Then the bush looks "golden".
The individual leaves of Aucuba japonica grow very large
Aucuba blooms with inconspicuous small flowers, which are collected in paniculate inflorescences. Orange fruits (drupes) are not worth picking, because they are poisonous.
There are two types of Japanese aucuba: with green and variegated leaves.
Distinguish Japanese aukuba from Aucuba himalaica, the homeland of which the Eastern Himalayas are considered, can be by some external signs. It has elongated and narrower pointed leaves, and after flowering, starting in March, red fruits ripen.
Caring for Japanese aucuba at home
A place... The best place for Japanese aucuba is sunny, bright, slightly shaded from the burning rays of the sun, so that ugly leaf burns do not appear. Partial shade (up to shade) is more suitable for bushes with green leaves. In summer, the aucuba pot can be exposed to fresh air: in the garden, on the balcony or on the patio near the house. In autumn, take it to a room with an air temperature of about + 8 ° ... 12 ° С... Small frosts will not harm the plant if they are not strong and prolonged.
For the summer, I expose the Japanese aucuba pot to the fresh air.
Landing... Japanese aukuba does not need to be planted in pots that are too large. They must correspond to the size of the bush and the condition of the root system. If a spacious container is taken, then a good drainage layer must be laid in it. Overgrown plants are best planted in a tub. Transplanting is usually carried out in spring, transshipment (if necessary) at any time of the year. At the same time, they try not to damage the brittle roots. The soil mixture is made up of sod land, humus, peat and coarse sand.
Watering and feeding... In summer, watering is moderate, but regular. Do not allow either drying out or waterlogging of the soil. In winter, Japanese aucuba is watered less frequently.
From spring to early autumn, aucuba is fed with complex fertilizers for indoor plants. Larger specimens can be fertilized with garden shrubs. In the summer, once a month, the plant is treated with diluted slurry. A fed aucuba has larger leaves and vibrant patterns than one that is not fertilized. The main indicator of a plant's health is the quality of its leaves.
Pruning... Aucuba bushes will grow branched if you regularly shorten some of the shoots. Especially at a young age, when their tops are pinched.
From the beginning of summer to autumn, you can keep a pot of Japanese aucuba dug into the ground near the house.
Pests and diseases... The main problem is the scale insects. Often, during a warm dry winter, black spots appear on the leaves. In winter, in a dry and warm room, the aucuba can shed its leaves.
Reproduction. CuttingsIs the fastest way to get a seedling. Cuttings root well from spring to autumn. Best time: from March to May and August... Cuttings give roots at room temperature.
In cuttings, a root lobe is formed even in a vase of water.
Aucuba japonica is an amazing plant with which to spend funny experience... Plant a leaf (with a petiole) in the ground and observe it. Roots are formed first, after which the leaf size will begin to increase. The leaf will grow, but most likely we will not wait for shoots.
By seed method use less often. Aukuba Japanese - dioecious plant: small flowers, collected in apical panicles, one plant has stamens, the other has pistils. This means that in order to obtain fruits with seeds, plants of different sexes must be planted. Only fresh seeds germinate well. They have a long germination period. In addition, varietal qualities are often lost during seed propagation. Therefore, it is not uncommon for the grown seedlings to have not "golden", but green leaves.
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Watering and humidity
In the summer, we provide abundant watering, so that during the breaks, from the first and second watering, the upper layer of the substrate dries up a little, and in the autumn-winter period, moderate watering is carried out. The plant will tolerate the relative drying of the earthen coma well, but excessive moisture in the soil will cause the appearance of black spots on the leaves.
Calmly refers to the dryness of the air in summer, especially adult specimens, so spraying is done as desired, and in the autumn-winter period, spraying is simply necessary. Spraying is done with warm and soft water. When this plant is kept in a room with a temperature limit of 6 to 12 degrees, the spraying procedure itself is carried out in the most accurate way or excluded altogether in order to avoid mold.
Proper nutrition recipes. TOFU: 5 recipes.
#health, #weight loss and proper nutrition, #healthy lifestyle, #syrtofu, #vegan recipes, #the transition to veganism
If you decide to gradually replace meat with other foods, then this article may help you.
Here are the three main benefits of tofu cheese:
- dense in consistency, "fleshy"
- rich in protein
- neutral in taste, and therefore versatile - it is combined with most ingredients and can "absorb" their taste.
This article contains a few culinary ideas. I made all the recipes myself and tried it myself. It is very simple to prepare these dishes, they are also affordable for the price. Hope you find the recipes useful!
1. Tofu with vegetables in a skillet.
Tofu, cut into cubes (or strips), adds variety to any stew.
If you are used to watering pasta or porridge with meat gravy, then simply stewed vegetables will not satisfy you now.
I would like something denser, more satisfying! So "fortify" your stew or gravy with finely chopped tofu.
Together with cereals - very satisfying!
Rice with vegetables and tofu (can be made as risotto)
2. Tofu fried in nori.
CRAB STICKS FOR VEGETARIANS AND VEGANS!
Tofu takes on the flavor of the ingredients it is mixed with. Next to the seaweed, it tastes like seafood!
This is a very simple dish and cooks quickly:
- cut the tofu into cubes,
- wrap in nori sheets (dip the sheets in water so that they become soaked and soft),
- dip in batter and fry in a pan!
Such a treat will not only diversify your table (including a festive one), you will definitely surprise your family members, friends and guests with it!
Vegan Crab Sticks
3. Canapes on skewers.
Everything is simple here! Unleash your imagination!
This photo is from a children's holiday. Such treats go "with a bang"!
Canapes with tofu
4. Tofu on skewers.
There is a separate Zen article about vegan picnics:
I can only say that fried tofu is even more delicious!
You can pre-soak it: mix oil, salt, lemon juice and spices. Optionally - vinegar, herbs.
Tofu at the stake
5. Sandwiches with tofu and bean pate!
Are you still not full without meat? Then we go to you!)))
It's delicious and incredibly nutritious:
- twist the cooked beans, garlic, herbs in a blender, adding lemon juice and salt
- spread the resulting paste on crispbread
- put a thin slice of tofu and a leaf of lettuce on top!
Two of these sandwiches are a complete meal!
Hearty vegan sandwiches.
Submit your ideas - I'll be happy to read any recipe or advice!
I wish you excellent health and good spirits!
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10. Summer indoor roses are best spent in the garden
Indoor roses are great lovers of fresh air. Even insufficiently frequent ventilation instantly affects the growth and flowering of the plant. And if even in the rooms fresh air stimulates roses, then the full effect of revitalization, violent and rapid growth and colorful flowering can be appreciated only if the roses are brought out in the summer to fresh air. On the terrace or balcony, they literally transform, changing beyond recognition.
Indoor roses can be planted in the soil for the summer:
- dropping the pots into the planting holes dug by the size of the container in the foreground of flower beds or a bed (drainage is laid under the container to protect the containers)
- transferring them into the ground as full-fledged seedlings.
So you can stimulate renewal, more abundant flowering, thickening of the shoots and the growth of a powerful root system. Roses that are planted in the soil grow more actively and faster. This is the best method of "rehabilitation" of diseased bushes and roses in a depressed state.