Information About Coreopsis

Information About Coreopsis

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Coreopsis Cultivars: What Are Some Common Varieties Of Coreopsis

By Mary H. Dyer, Credentialed Garden Writer

It’s great to have several coreopsis plant varieties in your garden, as the beautiful, brightly colored plants are easy to get along with, producing long-lasting blooms that attract bees and butterflies throughout the season. This article include popular coreopsis varieties.

Coreopsis Overwintering: How To Winterize A Coreopsis Plant

By Mary H. Dyer, Credentialed Garden Writer

Coreopsis is a hardy plant suitable for growing in USDA plant hardiness zones 4 through 9. As such, coreopsis winter care isn't a difficult task, but a bit of protection will ensure the plant remains hale and hearty throughout winter. This article will help.

Growing Coreopsis: How To Care For Coreopsis Flowers

By Becca Badgett, Co-author of How to Grow an EMERGENCY Garden

Coreopsis plants may be just what you need if you?re looking for lasting summer color after most perennial flowers fade from the garden. It is easy to learn how to care for coreopsis, and this article will help.

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Uses
  • 3 Taxonomy
  • 4 Distribution and habitat
  • 5 Cultivation
  • 6 Classification
    • 6.1 Sections
    • 6.2 Selected species
      • 6.2.1 Section Anathysana
      • 6.2.2 Section Calliopsis
      • 6.2.3 Section Coreopsis
      • 6.2.4 Section Electra
      • 6.2.5 Section Eublepharis
      • 6.2.6 Section Gyrophyllum (syn. Palmatae)
      • 6.2.7 Section Leptosyne
      • 6.2.8 Section Pseudoagarista
      • 6.2.9 Section Pugiopappus
      • 6.2.10 Section Silphidium
      • 6.2.11 Section Tuckermannia
    • 6.3 Formerly placed here
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

These plants range from 46–120 cm (18–47 in) in height. The flowers are usually yellow with a toothed tip, but may also be yellow-and-red bicolor. [3] They have showy flower heads with involucral bracts in two distinct series of eight each, the outer being commonly connate at the base. The flat fruits are small and dry and look like insects.

There are 75–80 species of Coreopsis, all of which are native to North, Central, and South America. The name Coreopsis is derived from the Greek words κόρις (koris), meaning "bedbug", and ὄψις (opsis), meaning "view", referring to the shape of the achene. [4] [5]

Coreopsis species are a source of nectar and pollen for insects. [3] The species is known to provide food to caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, including Coleophora acamtopappi. The sunny, summer-blooming, daisy-like flowers are popularly planted in gardens to attract butterflies. Both annual and perennial types are grown in the home garden (USDA Hardiness Zone 7a/6b). [3] In the Mid-Atlantic region, insects such as bees, hover flies, and wasps are often observed visiting the flowers. [3]

All Coreopsis species were designated the state wildflower of the U.S. state of Florida in 1991. [6] In the language of flowers, Coreopsis means to be always cheerful, while Coreopsis arkansa in particular stands for love at first sight. [7]

Coreopsis is a variable genus closely related to Bidens. In fact, neither Coreopsis nor Bidens, as defined in the 20th century, is strictly monophyletic. Coreopsis is best described as paraphyletic. Previously (1936), Coreopsis was classified into 11 sections and 114 species, but the African species were subsequently reclassified as Bidens, leaving the North and South American species, some 75–80 in all, under Coreopsis. 45 species are in the 11 North American sections, and the remaining 35 are in the South American section Pseudoagarista. The North American species fall into two broad groups, with 5 sections and 12 species in Mexico and North America and the remaining 5 sections and 26 species in Eastern North America. [4]

One group which does seem to be monophyletic consists of temperate species from North America, including five sections of Coreopsis, Bidens coronata and Bidens tripartita, and the genus Thelesperma (five species). [8]

North American Coreopsis can be found in two habitats in the wild, growing along roadsides and open fields throughout the Eastern United States and Canada. In this environment the plant will self-sow.

Coreopsis can grow in a garden as a border plant, or in a container, preferring well-drained soil. Deadheading the flowers ensures it does not become weedy. Using the USDA Hardiness Zones will identify what soil and climate is preferred for different cultivars or species. [9] Notable species found in cultivation are C. grandiflora and C. verticillata, as well as their various cultivars.

Zinnias are one of the easiest flowers to grow, as they grow quickly and bloom heavily. Zinnia flowers can create a massive burst of color in your garden, so consider trying them this year!

Zinnias are annuals, so they’ll grow for one season and produce seeds, but the original plant will not come back in subsequent years. They have bright, solitary, daisy-like flowerheads on a single, erect stem, which makes them great for use as a cutting flower or as food for butterflies.

Types of Zinnias

The most popular zinnia species is Zinnia elegans, which has been bred to produce a great number of unique varieties.

There are three main kinds of zinnia flowers: single, semidouble, or double. The distinction between these forms comes from the number of rows of petals and whether or not the center of the flower is visible:

  • Single-flowered zinnias have a single row of petals and a visible center.
  • Double-flowered zinnias have numerous rows of petals and their centers are not visible.
  • Semidouble-flowered zinnias are somewhere in-between, with numerous rows of petals but visible centers.

In addition to these forms, zinnia flowers come in a number of shapes, including “beehive,” “button,” and “cactus.” The plants themselves also come in different heights: taller varieties are best for the background of a garden bed, while shorter varieties work well along a border. There’s really a zinnia for every garden!

Plant zinnias in an annual or mixed border garden. Smaller zinnias are suitable for edging, windowboxes, or other containers.

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Zone This refers to the USDA hardiness zone assigned to each part of the country, based on the minimum winter temperature that a region typically experiences. Hardiness zone ranges are provided for all perennial plants and you should always choose plants that fall within your range.

Sun The amount of sunlight this product needs daily in order to perform well in the garden. Full sun means 6 hours of direct sun per day partial sun means 2-4 hours of direct sun per day shade means little or no direct sun.

Height The typical height of this product at maturity.

Spread The width of the plant at maturity.

Bloom Season The time of the year when this product normally blooms.

Resistant To Adverse garden conditions, such as heat or frost, deer or rabbits, that this product can tolerate well.

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Coreopsis: Indoor or Direct Sow or Potted Plant Perennial

How to Sow and Plant Coreopsis

Coreopsis may be grown from seed sown early indoors and transplanted outside after frost, or sown directly in the garden in summer, or grown from potted plants.

Sowing Coreopsis Seed Indoors:

  • Sow indoors 6-8 weeks before outdoor planting time
  • Sow ½ inches deep in seed-starting formula
  • Keep the soil moist at 70-75 degrees F
  • Seedlings emerge in 15-20 days
  • As soon as seedlings emerge, provide plenty of light on a sunny windowsill or grow seedlings 3-4 inches beneath fluorescent plant lights turned on 16 hours per day, off for 8 hours at night. Raise the lights as the plants grow taller. Incandescent bulbs will not work for this process because they will get too hot. Most plants require a dark period to grow, do not leave lights on for 24 hours.
  • Seedlings do not need much fertilizer, feed when they are 3-4 weeks old using a starter solution (half strength of a complete indoor houseplant food) according to manufacturer’s directions.
  • If you are growing coreopsis in small cells, you may need to transplant the seedlings to 3 or 4 inch pots when they have at least 2 pairs of true leaves before transplanting to the garden so they have enough room to develop strong roots.
  • Before planting in the garden, coreopsis seedling plants need to be “hardened off”. Accustom young plants to outdoor conditions by moving them to a sheltered place outside for a week. Be sure to protect them from wind and hot sun at first. If frost threatens at night, cover or bring containers indoors, then take them out again in the morning. This hardening off process toughens the plant’s cell structure and reduces transplant shock and scalding.

Sowing Coreopsis Directly in the Garden:

  • Choose a location in full sun with well-drained soil after danger of frost. In frost free areas sow from fall to early spring.
  • Remove weeds and work organic matter into the top 6-8 inches of soil then level and smooth.
  • Sow evenly and thinly cover with ½ inch of fine soil.
  • Firm the soil lightly and keep it evenly moist.
  • Seedlings will emerge in 15-20 days.
  • Thin to 18 inches apart when seedlings are 2 inches tall.

Planting Potted Coreopsis Plants:

  • Choose a location in full sun with well-drained soil.
  • Prepare the bed by turning the soil under to a depth of 6-12 inches removing any debris, and lightly raking as level as possible.
  • The addition of organic matter (leaf mold, compost, well-rotted manure) benefits all gardens and is essential in recently constructed neighborhoods.
  • Plant on a cloudy day or in late afternoon to reduce transplant shock.
  • Dig a hole for each plant large enough to amply accommodate the root ball.
  • Unpot the plant and gently loosen the root ball with your hands to encourage good root growth.
  • Place the top of the root ball even with the level of the surrounding soil. Fill with soil to the top of the root ball. Press soil down firmly with your hand.
  • Use the plant tag as a location marker.
  • Thoroughly water and apply a light mulch layer on top of the soil (1-2 inches) to conserve water and reduce weeds.

How to Grow Coreopsis

  • Keep weeds under control during the coreopsis growing season. Weeds compete with plants for water, space and nutrients, so control them by either cultivating often or use a mulch to prevent their germination.
  • Mulches also help retain soil moisture and maintain even soil temperatures. For perennials, an organic mulch of aged bark or shredded leaves lends a natural look to the bed and will improve the soil as it breaks down in time. Always keep mulches off a plant’s stems to prevent possible rot.
  • Careful watering is essential in getting perennials off to a good start. Water thoroughly at least once a week to help new roots grow down deeply. Soil should be damp at about 1 inch below the soil surface. You can check this by sticking your finger in the soil. Water early in the morning to give all leaves enough time to dry. One inch of rain or watering per week is recommended for most perennial plants. You can check to see if you need to add water by using a rain gauge.
  • Until plants become established, some protection from extreme winds and direct, hot sunlight may be necessary. Good air movement is also important.
  • After new growth appears, a light fertilizer may be applied. Keep granular fertilizers away from the plant crown and foliage to avoid burn injury. Use low rates of a slow release fertilizer, as higher rates may encourage root rots.
  • Coreopsis appreciates a protective winter mulch after the ground freezes north of zone 6.
  • Divide the plants in spring or fall for propagation or to rejuvenate old clumps.

Coreopsis Growing Tips

  • Many gardeners do not cut back perennial flower seed heads in the fall, but wait until early spring before the new foliage appears. This provides food for wildlife over the winter.
  • Coreopsis is valuable for the middle or front of the border and is an ideal addition to dry-soil gardens.
  • The cut flowers are long-lasting and a welcome addition to fresh arrangements.

General Tips for Growing Perennial Flowers

Watch the video: Coreopsis Varieties A to Z